||38 EDWIN B. FIRMAGE What are those boundaries by which we divide ourselves from each other? First, nationalism has become a natural source of warfare in our modern society in which we have divided ourselves up into territorial nation-states. Too often the churches have simply served as chaplains for the state, or as spokesmen for national chambers of commerce, blessing the efforts of whatever nation they found themselves within upon whatever courses the state may be on. In this tradition, Christian Frenchmen fought Christian Germans, each blessed by nationalist churches, convinced that God was on their side. The church must overcome Constantine's gift. Religious leadership which cannot distinguish between chauvinistic nationalism and discipleship has nothing to offer us today but visions of its own bankruptcy. Contrarily, pulpits in every age have been used to call us to repentance, even national repentance. Bonhoeffer in Hitler's Nazi Germany is perhaps our most heroic example. Martin Luther King performed the same role here. Our American Catholic Bishops are now filling this prophetic calling with their pastorals on war and peace64 and on social and economic justice.65 Our United Methodist bishops have given us their document,66 which is in the same tradition of prophetic call. Within our own land at least, the first amendment protects such discipleship within the political arena just as the first commandment demands it.67 With the heroism evident only when one offers one's life for another, Roman Catholic clergy and sisters, valiant Franciscans and other religious have borne their witness in Guatemala and Poland, El Salvador and Nicaragua, the Philippines and Haiti. To the Franciscans particularly, whom I have come to know all over the world, I pay my respect- and offer my gratitude. Their Father Francis of Assisi must be filled with joy and with love. (I daren't say pride.) Francis formed three orders while he lived: male, female, and lay. Perhaps it is time for a fourth: lay, ecumenical, and both married and single. For the spirit of Francis has broken free from 64 The Challenge of Peace: God's Promise and Our Response, a Pastoral Letter on War and Peace, National Conference of Catholic Bishops (May 3, 1983). 65 Economic Justice for All: Catholic Social Teaching and the U.S. Economy, National Conference of Catholic Bishops (Nov. 13, 1986). 66 In Defense of Creation: The Nuclear Crisis and a Just Peace, a Pastoral Letter and Foundation Document, United Methodist Council of Bishops (May 2, 1986). 67 Firmage, The First Amendment and the Third Commandment, paper delivered at Bryant College Conference on Church and State (Mar. 26, 1986).