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Title Ends and means in conflict
Subject Nuclear warfare--Moral and ethical aspects; War--Moral and ethical aspects; War--Religious aspects; War and emergency powers--United States; Ends and means
Description The 49th Annual Frederick William Reynolds Lecture.
Creator Firmage, Edwin Brown
Publisher Division of Continuing Education, University of Utah
Date 1987-10-15
Date Digital 2008-05-29
Type Text
Format application/pdf
Digitization Specifications Original scanned on Epson Expression 10000XL flatbed scanner and saved as 400 ppi uncompressed tiff. Display images generated in PhotoshopCS and uploaded into CONTENTdm Aquisition Station.
Resource Identifier http://content.lib.utah.edu/u?/reynolds,1147
Source U263 .F57 1987
Language eng
Relation Digital reproduction of "Ends and means in conflict," J. Willard Marriott Library Special Collections
Rights Digital Image Copyright University of Utah
Metadata Cataloger Seungkeol Choe; Ken Rockwell
ARK ark:/87278/s6x34vfm
Setname uu_fwrl
Date Created 2008-07-29
Date Modified 2008-07-31
ID 320434
Reference URL https://collections.lib.utah.edu/ark:/87278/s6x34vfm

Page Metadata

Title Page 34
Description 34 EDWIN B. FIRMAGE spiritual infants of people who could ever think that moral decisions could be made corporately rather than individually. Doing what my file leader commands may be in the individual instance right or wrong, but the moral responsibility is always my own. Any system which teaches otherwise helps create a generation of moral and spiritual infants with all the dependency that term describes. Sane people do insane things to others when they allow any other person or organization, in the name of God or the state, to make these moral decisions on their behalf. If we allow leaders of nations to avoid the moral order by reason of state, then indeed we are doomed. Every tyrant who ever tried to abuse and subjugate another sought justification by a supposed higher purpose of state. Our whole struggle is about means. We all agree on the ends of happiness and the good society. The competition that matters is about what restraint of means we are willing to impose upon ourselves along the way. Holocausts have happened when people have excused their murderous acts by reason of state necessity and the orders of superiors to whom fidelity was owed. Those who take and kill innocent hostages in the name of Palestinian rights or Islamic fundamentalism commit murder. Those who bomb villages and kill innocent women and children in response commit murder. Those who bomb restaurants where American servicemen congregate commit murder. Those who car-bomb and those who approve the bombing of populated portions of Lebanese cities, knowing that civilian casualties out of all proportion to combatants will result, are assassins, not patriots. Those who authorize and those who knowingly carry out the bombing of the tent of Muommar Khadafy in an attempt to kill his wife and children are assassins and should be removed from office and prosecuted as such. The state is a creation of law. People are not. People die. No legal entity or doctrine of reason of state, no doctrine of superior orders can justify taking innocent life. Thomas Merton noted the chilling rationality, the sanity, the law-abiding behavior that characterized Adolph Eichmann and others who performed their duty in obedience to superior orders and caused the Holocaust.61 With Merton, I believe the final holocaust will come, 61 One of the most disturbing facts that came out in the Eichmann trial was that a psychiatrist examined him and pronounced him perfectly sane. I do not doubt it at all, and that is precisely why I find it disturbing.
Format application/pdf
Identifier 037-RNLT- firmageE_ Page 34.jpg
Source Original Manuscript: Ends and means in conflict by Edwin B. Firmage.
Setname uu_fwrl
Date Created 2008-07-29
Date Modified 2008-07-29
ID 320418
Reference URL https://collections.lib.utah.edu/ark:/87278/s6x34vfm/320418