||ENDS AND MEANS IN CONFLICT 29 autonomy, by my example based upon my own decision as to what I think. Our greatest spiritual teachers have perceived this.Jesus began his ministry with a call that we simply change our minds. We need not be secretary of state, or senator or president to do this. Finally, all power is here. A. Motes and Beams Today the first and perhaps the only duty of the philosopher is to defend man against himself; To defend man against that extraordinary temptation toward inhumanity to which-almost without being aware of it-so many human beings today have yielded. Gabriel Marcel48 We used to wonder where war lived, what it was that made it so vile. And now we realize that we know where it lives. It is inside ourselves. Albert Camus49 What I think must begin with my own enormous capacity to project my own fears outward upon another. I believe that objective evil exists. All evil is not simply the result of my projection outward. Evil can, with understandable overstatement, be embodied. Adolph Hitler and the other psychopaths who controlled Germany in the 1930s and 1940s are evidence of this. Perhaps, consequently, World War II was the last just war. Just in Allied entry, perhaps, but surely not just in its conduct. Witness our own bombing of civilian targets in numbers that dwarfed German or Japanese bombing, the fire bombing of Dresden, Hamburg and Tokyo, for example. And Hiroshima and Nagasaki. But World War II stands alone in modern time at least. History may not repeat itself, but sometimes a paraphrase occurs. It is World War I that I fear, not the personification of objective evil in another Hitler. In World War I, our own subjective capacity to do evil and act stupidly existed within every government. We possess within ourselves great fear and guilt. We project that fear, based upon guilt, outward. This externalization of evil is what 48 As quoted in Thomas Merton, Raids on the Unspeakable (New York: New Directions, 1966). 49 A. Camus, Carnets 1935-1942 79 (P. Thody, trans., Hamish Hamilton Ltd.: 1962).