||ENDS AND MEANS IN CONFLICT 3 I. Nuclear Weaponry and the Defense of the State It has been suggested by American friends that the Atom Bomb will bring Ahimsa' (nonviolence) as nothing else can .... The moral to be legitimately drawn from the supreme tragedy of the Bomb is that it will not be destroyed by counter-bombs, even as violence cannot be by counter-violence. Mankind has to get out of violence only through non-violence. Hatred can only be overcome by love. Mohandas K. Gandhi3 The prophets had a vision of peace. A man would be able to sit under his fig tree in utter contentment, sure that he would not plant and another by violence reap the benefits of his work; secure in his home against rapine of the world. He would live injustice and peace until the age of a tree and come to know the children of his children's children.4 Yet today we are unsure that human society, as bequeathed to us from centuries of forebears, can be passed on to the next generation. Whatever else we may be - doctors and lawyers, mechanics and scientists, teachers and students - we are stewards, stewards for all that has been given us by every previous artist, scientist, engineer and prophet who has ever lived. Every generation performs this role - at least, every generation until now. In fact, in one degree or another every previous generation could not, try as they might and some tried very hard indeed, totally fail in this second most crucial task we have. For we lacked the power utterly to obliterate human society until now. Even those who governed society during the first three decades of the nuclear era could not complete the task of destroying human society because we didn't have enough bombs. We have enough now.5 One medium-sized hydrogen bomb possesses more megatonnage - more power - than every weapon fired by every side in every battle of World War II - from two years before the United States entered that carnage that took fifty million lives to the ending of that war with our dropping the only two nuclear weapons ever used on human beings. Now the nuclear powers add two nuclear weapons 3 Towards Lasting Peace, 228-30 (Bombay, India: July 7, 1946). * Isaiah 2:1-5; Micah 4:1-4; Hosea 2:20-23; Exodus 6:1-8. 5 The International Institute for Strategic Studies, The Military Balance 1986-1987 (1986).