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Title Ends and means in conflict
Subject Nuclear warfare--Moral and ethical aspects; War--Moral and ethical aspects; War--Religious aspects; War and emergency powers--United States; Ends and means
Description The 49th Annual Frederick William Reynolds Lecture.
Creator Firmage, Edwin Brown
Publisher Division of Continuing Education, University of Utah
Date 1987-10-15
Date Digital 2008-05-29
Type Text
Format application/pdf
Digitization Specifications Original scanned on Epson Expression 10000XL flatbed scanner and saved as 400 ppi uncompressed tiff. Display images generated in PhotoshopCS and uploaded into CONTENTdm Aquisition Station.
Resource Identifier,1147
Source U263 .F57 1987
Language eng
Relation Digital reproduction of "Ends and means in conflict," J. Willard Marriott Library Special Collections
Rights Digital Image Copyright University of Utah
Metadata Cataloger Seungkeol Choe; Ken Rockwell
ARK ark:/87278/s6x34vfm
Setname uu_fwrl
Date Created 2008-07-29
Date Modified 2008-07-31
ID 320434
Reference URL

Page Metadata

Title Page 19
Description ENDS AND MEANS IN CONFLICT 19 Statutes of Congress forbid the export of arms to countries, including Iran, that support acts of international terrorism36 and prohibit covert operations by the CIA without a finding by the president that each operation is "important to the United States."37 Other statutes demand notification of Congress of covert and other operations of the CIA, and forbid any military assistance to the Nicaraguan Contras from October 1984 to October 1986.38 Clearly, statutes of Congress were intentionally circumvented and violated, and congressional objectives thwarted by members of this administration possessing no respect for law and showing contempt for Congress and the democratic process. The term "process" as used in several settings appears to have no meaning to these people. Due process of law and the democratic process were swept aside by those completely captured by their objective. In early 1984, the Reagan administration established a private, covert, paramilitary network to ensure continued monetary and military aid to the Contra movement.39 The Tower Commission Report has found that President Reagan was informed of this private aid network orchestrated by the National Security Council. The diversion to the Nicaraguan Contras of public funds received from the sale of weapons to Iran directly violates the Boland Amendment. The active role played by both the President and the Vice-President, George Bush, in raising private funds to support the Contras subverts an express policy of that branch that has the sole power over the decision for war or peace for our country, the Congress of the United States. The President and the Vice President are our country's highest officers in the executive branch of government. They are not simply private citizens. Mr. Reagan's reference to the Abraham Lincoln Brigade, private American citizens who fought in the Spanish Civil War, is inappropriate. He is not Ernest Hemingway. He is the President for now. If he wishes the freedom of action of a private citizen, there are ways that may be accomplished. In Nicaragua we are waging continuing subversion and war against a sovereign state we formally recognize. There, we violate the Neu- 36 See Arms Export Control Act, 22 U.S.C. §§ 2751-2794 (1983). 37 See National Security Act § 501 (1947), 50 U.S.C. §§ 401-405 (1980). 38 See Intelligence Authorization Act of 1947, Pub. L. No. 96-450, 94 Stat. 1975 (1980); Boland Amendment, Pub. L. No. 97-377, § 793, 96 Stat. 1865 (1982). 39 Parry & Barger, Reagan's Shadow CIA, The New Republic 24 (Nov. 24, 1986).
Format application/pdf
Identifier 022-RNLT- firmageE_ Page 19.jpg
Source Original Manuscript: Ends and means in conflict by Edwin B. Firmage.
Setname uu_fwrl
Date Created 2008-07-29
Date Modified 2008-07-29
ID 320403
Reference URL