||4 EDWIN B. FIRMAGE to our arsenal each day, two world wars added to our capacity to kill each other yet another time. We and the Soviets have the capacity (not to mention the nuclear arsenals of the English, the French, the Chinese and the Israelis) to kill each other scores of times over. We have known since the 1960s that two hundred, or at most three hundred nuclear bombs could devastate each other's society almost beyond repair. Yet we now possess over 50,000 such weapons. The first duty that we owe to each other is to perpetuate the human race: life itself and that pool of genes bequeathed by fathers and mothers from the beginning that helps determine our progression through intellect and beauty and talent into the image of God. Now even the continuation of the species and the genetic heritage is not assured. Whether by fire as hot as the center of the sun or by ice in nuclear winter's darkness at noonday in August or by the famine and pandemic that would follow our rending the interconnected web of life in a thousand places, we would die by the billions and with us most if not all the other forms of life to whom we owe the duty of stewardship.6 And yet like zombies with one hand on the shoulder of the one in front we march on, two more bombs, then two more and two more. Weapons available, over enough time and through enough crises, have almost always become weapons used. In 1860 Brigham Young said: When the nations for years turned much of their attention to manufacturing instruments of death, they have sooner or later used those instruments. . . . From the authority of all 6 See, e.g., The Effects of the Atomic Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, The United States Strategic Bombing Survey (Washington, D.C.: Gov't Printing Office 1946), detailing these and other effects of nuclear weapons. See also Committee for Compilation of Materials on Damage Caused by the Atomic Bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Hiroshima and Nagasaki: The Physical, Medical and Social Effects of Nuclear War (New York: Basic Books, 1981); Office of Technology Assessment, Congress of the United States, The Effects of Nuclear War (Washington, D.C: Gov't Printing Office 1979). Physicians recently are becoming increasingly concerned about the devastating effects of nuclear war. The seminal and still key research in this area of the medical consequences of nuclear war is Ervin, et al., The Medical Consequences of Thermonuclear War, 22 New England Journal of Medicine 266, 1127-37 (1962); see also Hiatt, The Final Epidemic: Prescriptions for Prevention, 5 Journal of the American Medical Association 252, 635-44 (1984). Long-term consequences of nuclear war, or "nuclear winter," are discussed in Sagan, Nuclear Winter: Global Consequences of Multiple Nuclear Explosions, 222 Science 128 (1983); Ehrlich, et al., Long-Term Biological Consequences of Nuclear War, 111 Science 1293-1300 (1983).