||:;,! LAWS OV UTAH. in which the case has arisen, or when the case has not arisen in any court, to the clei'k of the Probate Court; and it shall be the duty of the clerk in whose office any such decision has been filed, to make a record thereof, and proceed in the same manner as if the case had been prosecuted arid decided in the usual manner. .. Approved Jan. 19, 1855. ¦ • ...... CHAPTER II. An ACTContaining provisions applicable to the Laivs of the Territory of Utah. Sec. 1.-Be it enacted by the Governor and Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Utah: That all questions of law, the meaning of waitings other than laws, and the admissibility of testimony, shall be decided by the court; and no laws nor parts of laws shall be read, argued, cited, or adopted in any court, during any trial, except those enacted by the Governor and Legislative Assembly of this Territory, and those passed by the Congress of the United States when applicable; and no report, decision or doings of any court shall be read, argued, cited, or adopted as precedent in any other trial. ' Sec. 2.-The repeal of a law does not revive one previously .repealed by it, n©r affect any rights, duties, or penalties which have arisen under it. Sec. 3.-Laws, and parts thereof, and words, and phrases, shall be construed in accordance with the customary usage of the language. Sec. 4.-Words used in one tense may include either; and words used in one gender may include either; the singular may be read plural, and the. plural singular; "person" may include a partnership, and a body corporate and politic; "writing" may include printing; "oath" may include affirmation or declaration; "signature" or "subscription" may include a mark, with the person's name written near it, and witnessed by one who can write. "Property" includes everything usually bought and sold, unless restricted. Joint authority given to three or more persons is given to the majority, unless restricted. Approved Jan. 14, 1854. CHATTER III. V An ACT in relation to Justices of the Peace. ¦ ¦¦ Sec. 1.-Be it enacted by the Governor and Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Utah: That each Precinct in this Territory shall elect one Justice of the Peace, and one Constable, and the same may be increased in any Precinct by the County court, whenever they shall deem that the public good requires it. Sec. 2.-Each Justice of the Peace and Constable shall take an oath of office and give bond, with approved securities, in the sum of one thousand dollars, which bond shall be approved by the County court, and filed in the clerk's office; said Justices and Constable shall hold their offices for the term of two years, and until their successors are elected and qualified, and they shall be commissioned by the Governor. Sec. 3.-It shall be the duty of every Justice of the Peace to examine strictly and faithfully into the merits and demerits of all civil and criminal cases which may come before him, and execute justice without respect to persons, or favor, or the technicalities of the law; preserve the public peace; sit in judgment in all cases referred to him; and keep a true record of all proceedings laid' before him; and, in case of appeal, transmit a copy of the same to the Clerk of the Court to which the appeal is made, within five days from the time the appeal is taken.