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Title GENE is out of the Bottle, The
Description The 55th Annual Frederick William Reynolds Lecture.
Creator Gesteland, Raymond F.
Publisher University of Utah
Date 1995-11-07
Date Digital 2008-05-29
Type Text
Format image/jpeg
Digitization Specifications Original scanned on Epson Expression 10000XL flatbed scanner and saved as 400 ppi uncompressed tiff. Display images generated in PhotoshopCS and uploaded into CONTENTdm Aquisition Station.
Language eng
Relation Is part of: Annual Frederick William Reynolds lecture
Rights Digital Image Copyright University of Utah
Metadata Cataloger Seungkeol Choe
ARK ark:/87278/s6mk69v5
Setname uu_fwrl
Date Created 2008-07-29
Date Modified 2008-07-29
ID 320758
Reference URL https://collections.lib.utah.edu/ark:/87278/s6mk69v5

Page Metadata

Title Page 18
Description ing the human protein to the site. The gene encoding the activator half of the yeast protein can be fused to the gene for another human protein. If the two human proteins interact, the activator domain will be brought to the vicinity of the DNA binding site and this attachment will be sufficient to recruit the transcription complex and cause expression of the reporter gene. A simple color test for the reporter product tells the experimenter whether the two human proteins are able to recognize each other inside the cell. This powerful method permits construction of maps of interactive gene products, which will be invaluable in the next phase of the genome project. This sort of mapping is being carried out systematically for all the yeast genes and E. coli genes. Can it be done on a large scale with human genes? Probably. fPolvmt r.isi J ty________\»__Z._________ DNA Reporter Gene Another way to figure out how a complex thing works is to start with the whole and ask how each part contributes to the function. In the analogy with cars, remove or damage one part at a time and see what happens. If you remove a spark plug wire the car runs but roughly, but you can learn that this part is not essential and you could learn that it is in the electrical pathway. Put a hole in the diaphragm of the fuel pump and the car is dead â€" that part is essential. An autopsy would show that the car died because no fuel got to the carburetor. Loosen one head bolt and nothing happens â€" the car runs fine for 20,000 miles but then blows a head gasket. The part is important for longevity. This approach is slow but systematic. This is the "knockout" approach which is highly developed in bacteria, yeast, C. elegans, Drosophila and mouse. If you know the sequence of a gene it can be substituted by a defective one (or vice versa). It is one of the few powerful approaches to understanding the function of each gene in an organism. With the complete genome sequence each gene can be knocked out one at a time and the effect on growth can be assessed. In some cases no effect will be seen, and the conclusion will be that either the gene is not needed under these growth conditions or there are two genes with the same function and knocking out one is not sufficient to cause a visible change. Knocking out some genes changes the ability of an organism to use particular nutrients for growth. Destroying others leads to developmental abnormalities. Yet other deficiencies lead to death. An autopsy will often help figure out what function was disrupted. This is a slow process that must progress through genes one at a time, but at
Format image/jpeg
Identifier 018-RNLT-GestelandRE_Page 18.jpg
Source Original Manuscript: The GENE is out of the bottle by Raymond F. Gesteland.
Setname uu_fwrl
Date Created 2008-07-29
Date Modified 2008-07-29
ID 320752
Reference URL https://collections.lib.utah.edu/ark:/87278/s6mk69v5/320752