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Title GENE is out of the Bottle, The
Description The 55th Annual Frederick William Reynolds Lecture.
Creator Gesteland, Raymond F.
Publisher University of Utah
Date 1995-11-07
Date Digital 2008-05-29
Type Text
Format image/jpeg
Digitization Specifications Original scanned on Epson Expression 10000XL flatbed scanner and saved as 400 ppi uncompressed tiff. Display images generated in PhotoshopCS and uploaded into CONTENTdm Aquisition Station.
Language eng
Relation Is part of: Annual Frederick William Reynolds lecture
Rights Digital Image Copyright University of Utah
Metadata Cataloger Seungkeol Choe
ARK ark:/87278/s6mk69v5
Setname uu_fwrl
Date Created 2008-07-29
Date Modified 2008-07-29
ID 320758
Reference URL https://collections.lib.utah.edu/ark:/87278/s6mk69v5

Page Metadata

Title Page 11
Description in small pieces. A few regions of 1 or 2 megabases have been sequenced, but they are the rare exception. The T-cell receptor region has been sequenced by Leroy Hood's group, and a megabase region on chromosome 22 has been sequenced by Bruce Roe. Many shorter regions have been sequenced around genes of interest in the course of specific research projects, but the majority of human sequences in the database are not actually sequences of human genome DNA but of cDNAs or "complimentary" DNA. These are DNA copies of messenger RNAs which are the intermediaries between the genes in DNA and the ultimate protein products of genes. cDNAs represent the "expressed" parts of genes that carry the linear information to specify proteins. They represent only five percent of the total human DNA and lack any information for control of gene expression, chromosome replication, etc. Size (bases) Genes %Sequenced Mycoplasma genitalia 580,070 470 100% Hemophilus influenzae 1,830,000 1,727 100% Escherischia coli 4,400,000 4,500 50% Yeast 12,500,000 6,000 60% Caenorhabditis elcgans 100,000,000 13,000 20% Drosophila mclanogaster 150,000,000 20,000 3% Mouse 3,000,000,000 100,000 1% Human 3,000,000,000 100,000 1% A great controversy was stirred up over the very aggressive move by a non-profit institution, The Institute for Genome Research, or TIGR, and it's parent for-profit company, Human Genome Sciences, to sequence large number of these cDNAs and to patent them. cDNA sequencing is very easy to do; you do not have to deal with chromosomes at all. A large library of these cloned molecules can be made from the messenger RN A of any cell. Individuals are picked at random and a quick sequence of 100-200 bases is determined and put in a data base of "snippets" of genes. The sequences are short, not accurate and quite redundant, but nonetheless useful for helping to find genes on chromosomes. Initially they were kept in their own private database where they were accessible for possible patenting and this is what stirred up the controversy. The initial cDNA sequencing was done while Craig Ventor was at NIH and the continuing work at TIGR was supported by NIH grants. Questions arose. Shouldn't the data be public? What about patent applications that covered future uses of these sequences in finding genes and developing diagnostics and new therapies? Since NIH supported the research, they with Ventor pushed the patents. The issue became very heated, especially between NIH Director Bernadine Healy and Jim Watson,
Format image/jpeg
Identifier 011-RNLT-GestelandRE_Page 11.jpg
Source Original Manuscript: The GENE is out of the bottle by Raymond F. Gesteland.
Setname uu_fwrl
Date Created 2008-07-29
Date Modified 2008-07-29
ID 320745
Reference URL https://collections.lib.utah.edu/ark:/87278/s6mk69v5/320745