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Title GENE is out of the Bottle, The
Description The 55th Annual Frederick William Reynolds Lecture.
Creator Gesteland, Raymond F.
Publisher University of Utah
Date 1995-11-07
Date Digital 2008-05-29
Type Text
Format image/jpeg
Digitization Specifications Original scanned on Epson Expression 10000XL flatbed scanner and saved as 400 ppi uncompressed tiff. Display images generated in PhotoshopCS and uploaded into CONTENTdm Aquisition Station.
Language eng
Relation Is part of: Annual Frederick William Reynolds lecture
Rights Digital Image Copyright University of Utah
Metadata Cataloger Seungkeol Choe
ARK ark:/87278/s6mk69v5
Setname uu_fwrl
Date Created 2008-07-29
Date Modified 2008-07-29
ID 320758
Reference URL https://collections.lib.utah.edu/ark:/87278/s6mk69v5

Page Metadata

Title Page 17
Description but instead of finding a Ferrari, a Ford roadster and a Triumph you tind a single mound of parts from five cars - all of different sizes, dimensionalities and nationalities - a few hundred thousand components that make a parts list, like the genes of the human cell. Your job is to reassemble the functioning whole and understand how it works. Some of the parts you can sort out by family relatedness - all bolts for instance, but they obviously have different roles to play because they come in different sizes and have non-matching threads. A collection of gauges, knobs, wires, gaskets, filters, fenders, pipes would be definable. There would be a pile of computer chips that control functions through complicated wiring harnesses. The chips are related but yet specific for their roles; clearly a challenge. So how do you figure out how it all works? You could start by sorting by types: bolts, gears, cams, valves, inflatable bags. Find a threaded hole that will take one bolt. Find a plastic widget that matches a wingding. A very slow process; but with enough interactions of trial and error you might succeed. It would clearly help if you had a preconceived notion of a functioning car and mechanics in general. However, key for reassembly is defining the interaction of parts. The car-reassembly analogy presents quite a simple problem compared to a human. The parts are macroscopic. There is no time dimension. And the definition of a functioning car is quite clear. With the complete encyclopedia of human genes, figuring out the role of each by such a reassembly approach will be challenging. Again interactions among gene products is fundamental. We know how some genes function now and we know about many interactions. We know about many of the chemical reactions that go on in cells and maps of these pathways are very complex. We are beginning to understand the key elements of signaling in cells, how they receive and transmit information from their environment, but already the complexity is challenging. We are beginning to understand the players in the complex regulation of genes â€" what turns them on and off. But the challenge comes when all the players are laid out in the encyclopedia. Perhaps new technologies will come to the rescue. One clever approach can identify the proteins that interact - i.e. recognize, each other. It takes advantage of very clever yeast genetics. A reporter gene whose product is very easy to measure, is made only if an activator protein binds to DNA in front of its gene, bringing the transcribing complex to the site to make its messenger RNA. The activator protein has two domains: one that binds to the site on the DNA and one that binds to and recruits the transcription complex. The yeast gene for this activator can be split in half so that each half encodes one of the domains. If the DNA-binding domain half is fused to the gene for one of the human genes being investigated, a fusion protein will be made that will bind to the yeast DNA, bring
Format image/jpeg
Identifier 017-RNLT-GestelandRE_Page 17.jpg
Source Original Manuscript: The GENE is out of the bottle by Raymond F. Gesteland.
Setname uu_fwrl
Date Created 2008-07-29
Date Modified 2008-07-29
ID 320751
Reference URL https://collections.lib.utah.edu/ark:/87278/s6mk69v5/320751