||24 TWENTY-SECOND ANNUAL REYNOLDS LECTURE More research funds can be put to good use in studying these specific problems, but what is equally or even more urgent is the need for funds to study fundamental aspects of living systems and funds to provide adequate space to do this. Fortunately, there has been some progress in the last decade or so in the attitude towards the first of these problems. Most public and private agencies have developed a broader outlook with respect to specialized scientific problems. There is a growing cognizance of the importance of the study of fundamentals as a prelude or accompaniment to the theme of the immediately practical. Unfortunately, there is much less awareness of the importance of the second problem, that of the space and facilities in which to perform the research. With few exceptions, there is hardly a university or research institute that is not overcrowded and forced to curtail its activities because building has not kept pace with the growth of necessary scientific investigation. You will, undoubtedly, interpret these remarks as representing special pleading. You are quite correct; it is special pleading. Tempers and times have changed. Once upon a time, the scientist worked in an ivory tower with little concern about the outside world or its attitude towards him and his work. This is all changed because the world has moved in a way that cannot be reversed. The ivory tower has crumbled and in its place we find overcrowded laboratories in temporary buildings with improvised facilities, and beating at the doors are government, industry, the military and the community at large desiring immediate practical results. Let us hope that as a result of these immediate pressures, permanent progress will come in better public awareness of the importance of fundamental scientific research and its necessary accompaniments: adequate teaching of science and adequate facilities for research. We cannot return to the ivory tower. Let us remember that one of the factors which eliminated the ivory tower is the danger of widespread radiation, a danger to our nucleic acids which threatens not only ourselves but future generations as well. So we finish where we began, the fundamental substances which insure life and the continuity of life are the proteins and the nucleic acids. Let us then hope that the future will bring further understanding of the mode of behavior of these substances, and that such knowledge will enrich a longer and healthier life for all mankind.