||CHEMICAL KEYS TO AN UNDERSTANDING OF LIFE PROCESSES 23 nize no national boundaries and progress results from the individual efforts of scientists the world over. This is all so obvious that it seems unnecessary to mention such views here. Yet a public outcry has arisen because scientists on the other side of the world discovered first how to put a satellite in space!! Scientists are concerned about such attitudes because they are regarded, alternately or simultaneously, as impractical eccentrics or as magicians. They are neither. No investigator worth his salt is unaware of the possible practical implications of his work nor does he believe that he can reach practical ends without the theoretical means to these ends. At the moment, science is in the daily headlines and there is much agitation and discussion concerning scientific discovery and its practical applications. I end this talk tonight on this theme because I share with my fellow investigators a great fear, the fear that the public is being aroused to demand immediate practical results from scientific investigators. More money is going to be spent by the government in scientific applications. Moreover, all of you are urged to contribute to many worthy organizations which solicit funds used to support medical research. What about results ? I have already said that new ideas cannot be produced on command. Science progresses by the patient gathering of facts and by development of concepts which will not only explain the observations but lead to further novel observations and ideas. If, and this is a big if, if adequate funds and laboratories are available for trained scientists to work, the limiting factors to progress will be the caliber and number of investigators at work. No one can guarantee which observations will stimulate new ideas or where this will happen. Many times in the course of history, the same discovery or the same concept has been announced simultaneously and independently. One can neither command results nor can we stop someone else from having the idea first. Today there is great concern regarding cancer and heart disease as two of the major causes of disability and death, and much money is spent in encouraging research to find methods of prevention, early diagnosis and cure, as well as to determine the causes of these diseases. Is there any assurance that if ten times as much money is spent in studying these problems the answers will be found ? Not at all. Do not misunderstand the viewpoint that I am expressing here.