||His research interests center on the chemistry of proteins and enzymes, particularly in blood proteins in health and disease, for which he has received research grants from the Rockefeller Foundation, The American Cancer Society, U.S. Public Health Service, and from industrial concerns including Sterling Winthrop Research Institute, Armour & Co., and Mead-Johnson and Company. A present or former member of various advisory panels to the U.S. Public Health Service, Committee on Growth of the National Research Council, and Office of Naval Research, Dr. Smith is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and New York Academy of Science. He is also active in various scientific societies including the American Chemical Society, American Society of Biological Chemists, Biochemical Society of Great Britain, Society of General Physiology, and American Society of Naturalists. Recipient of a travel grant from the National Science Foundation, Professor Smith was Visiting Lecturer at University College, London, and the Royal Australian Chemical Institute during 1955. Also in 1955, Dr. Smith was official delegate to the Third International Congress of Biochemistry at Brussels, Belgium, and to the International Wool Textile Research Conference in Australia. He has attended a number of international scientific congresses and symposia, most recently a Symposium on the Structure and Function of Proteins under auspices of the International Congress of Pure and Applied Chemistry in Paris in 1957. Biochemistry plays a central role in modern studies of living cells since it is recognized that all biological activity results from underlying chemical processes. In his lecture, Professor Smith will present current views regarding the biological importance of proteins and nucleic acids, two of the main types of substances universally present in living systems. In particular, the central role of proteins as catalysts in promoting intracellular chemical reactions will be discussed. The present status of knowledge of protein structure will be considered in relation to the problem of protein specificity, as well as alteration of proteins in disease. The factors which control inherited characteristics, namely, the genes, determine the formation of the machinery of the cell. Present evidence concerning the chemical nature of the genes indicates that these substances are nucleic acids. Thus the two major types of substances responsible for the character of living cells are proteins, the substances controlling metabolism, and nucleic acids, substances controlling the formation of proteins. Some further implications of the importance of proteins and nucleic acids will also be reviewed.