||A PROGRAM FOR UTAH 21 ty to advanced students in English than a co-operative course relating literature to its sister arts, or sharing with other disciplines in an his-torical synthesis. It would be easier, but it would not be more useful, or more exciting. Second, to make general education successful requires some revision of conventional values. It requires putting in practice the theory that understanding is as necessary as fact, breadth as depth, teaching as research, the good generalist as the good specialist. Theoretically these are equated; ideally, united; actually, often disjoined and ill balanced. We have all encountered the eminent scholar who should have a nice safe library, or laboratory, and be kept there. This is no plea for ignorance: a university is a center of knowledge and hence of research. It is also, and first, a dispenser of education; as such, its function is teaching. I am concerned with this function. Society cannot leave general education to the whim of the student; it has too much at stake. However, what is required should be good, and the student should be made to feel that it is. As always, the very best teaching imaginable will fall short; but the very best available should be provided, and rewarded. This best calls for both facts and values, knowledge and wisdom. The success of science, the prestige of research, have been mixed blessings for education. One such blessing has been the ideal of objectivity. Some years ago, Counts of Columbia described the college professor as the individual who adopts an agnostic attitude towards every important social issue, who can balance the pros against the cons with the skill of a juggler, who sees all sides of every issue and never commits himself to any, who delays action until all the facts are in, who knows that all the facts will never come in, who consequently holds his judgment in a state of indefinite suspension, and who before the approach of middle age sees his powers of action atrophy and his social sympathies decay.u This is, I hope, caricature. Indeed, I am reliably informed that in science it is considered correct not only to pursue truth but to catch it. In the social studies and the humanities, however, this has been a dubious business. Professors who stuck their necks out have been known to get their heads chopped off. Yet at bottom is the question one of academic freedom? In any field the teacher owes the student not merely information but judgment. To say what to the best of his knowledge is true, is not really a privilege; it is a duty. VII What, in sum, has been argued? This: that our world is in imminent peril; that among means of averting this peril and building a good life beyond is education; that among the several necessary kinds of education one, called general, and including science, the social studies, and the humanities, is indispensable; that history, philosophy, and literature discharge essential functions having practical consequences for our present and future existence; and that we here in this region and this university can and should bear our small part in this far-flung enterprise. This is a modest proposal, perhaps too modest. What, it may be asked, does a Utah college program matter when earth's foundations 18 In "Education through Indoctrination," National Education Association, Department of Superintendence, Official Reports, 1932, pp. 193-199.