||12 THE TWO HORIZONS And when we talk about peace depending on knowledge, we imply that men are creatures of reason who, once informed, will order all things well. Men are creatures of reason, also of impulse, prejudice, and emotion â€" all delivered in the same package. Is war more a rational or an irrational activity? Does the mind need to be fed and disciplined more than the feelings? Is a man a series of insulated faculties with separate push buttons or is he a whole? Society, says Flexner, can afford either war or education, but not both. I have argued that it is better to afford education, that education is adequate only as it disciplines intellect and emotion, develops knowledge and character, that character measured against our visible horizons is a matter of effective good will, of responsibility, judgment, sensitivity, and imagination. I shall now argue that to meet these conditions collegiate and adult education in the United States should stress general education, within the frame of general education the humanities, and within the frame of the humanities literature. Ill The business of philosophy, Coleridge wrote, "consists in just distinction; while it is the privilege of the philosopher to preserve himself constantly aware that distinction is not division." The discussion following is philosophical at least in that its distinctions are not divisive; they are for emphasis or convenience, and aspects of education briefly treated or omitted altogether are not necessarily marked with the brand of Cain. Even a professor of English cannot say everything at once! Early schooling is important; so is higher education abroad. I confine myself to the American college partly because it seems the core of the problem, partly because I know something about it. Like most established institutions, the college tends to be conservative. It has its familiar, comfortable patterns; we cling to them even if their products show signs of spavin or housemaid's knee and can be called educated only through courtesy. This fact, among others, has led to some unkindness, even from friends: Ernest Hopkins of Dartmouth has described the college as a combination orphanage and penal institution, and Woodrow Wilson its studies as an interference with life organized by the faculty.6 More serious are Porter Sargent's charge that the dead hand of the past prevents adjustment to the needs of the present, and Chancellor Hutchins' statement: Taking the country over there is little evidence that its college and university graduates as such have ever done, said, or even thought anything which suggested that they could be singled out to lead the way in improving the education, government, or character of our people.7 But the college also has its ferments and uprisings. Sometimes these are effervescent fads disturbing only the surface; sometimes, however, they trouble the depths. The events of recent years have led to much soul searching among educators; one result is the movement toward "general education." Dr. Cowley of Stanford, speaking on this campus some eighteen months ago, amended Wells's statement to read: 6 Quoted in Burges Johnson, Campus versus Classroom (New York: Ives Washburn, 1946), p. 52. T Quoted in Sargent, War and Education, p. 162.