||GENERAL EDUCATION: AIMS AND ASPECTS 15 hundred years, exemplifying "the tactics and strategy of science," and chosen from a variety of fields.11 My three points come together: details of content and organization are matters for local common sense and are incidental to general education; what is essential is its purpose, its breadth, and its sense of relations. , IV I have proposed the two horizons as a test for contemporary programs, including this one. That general education is a good, sound long-term investment probably seems a reasonable proposition. That in these days of world-heard thunder it is a practical short-term one may seem less evident. But what is the essential stuff of general education? Science, the social studies, and the humanities, interrelated, and designed for the average consumer. For the near horizon the import of science is clear enough. It is its success, coupled with our failures elsewhere, that has drawn that horizon down upon us, and we must comprehend our creature in self-defense if for no other reason. There are, of course, other reasons. Our environment and ourselves are the materials we have to work with; we must know their limitations, their resources, and how to use them. The knowledge of biological and physical science is a chief tool to these ends â€" such knowledge, that is, as is available to laymen and will, with other kinds, further wise decisions. Of these other kinds, social knowledge is the most obvious and the most pressing. Until we have an understanding and control of the complex of economic-political-social behavior at least comparable with our understanding and control of the physical world we shall not push the horizon back very far.12 Presumably this kind of knowledge was intended in the Board of Regents' resolution I have cited, and surely the political scientist and his colleagues stand in the frontline trenches of the battle. The instrumental knowledge of the social studies and the sciences is indispensable, but it is not enough. We need also another kind of knowledge or, if you prefer, experience. To many, this kind doubtless seems at first glance completely irrelevant to the urgencies of our time. But it is at the heart of the argument when we say that destiny hangs less on what we know than what we are, that an adequate education concerns character and emotion as well as learning and intellect, and that responsibility, judgment, sensitivity, and imagination are requisites to peace on earth. This knowledge is accessible in the humanities and is in the most realistic sense practical. In using the term "humanities" I do not mean to renew an old dispute. Any discipline lacks meaning until related to human needs; any â€" mathematics, physics, what you will â€" can be so taught as to enlarge the spirit of man, and any â€" including English â€" so as to desiccate and shrivel it. But every discipline has its own nature; I mean by the humanities the natures of history, religion, philosophy, art, music, literature. Let us not quarrel over frontiers, over language or 11 "Education beyond the High School," Association of American Colleges Bulletin, XXXIII (March, 1947), pp. 18-19. ( 13See Robert S. Lynd, Knowledge for What? The Place of Social Science in American Culture (Princeton: Princeton University Presss, 1939), passim.