||OUR PROSPECTS AND A PROGRAM 9 of both. If we cannot take the near view, we shall not survive. If we cannot take the far view, it does not much matter whether we survive or not. Graham Wallas once said that we must "either justify our civilization or change it." We may have to change it to justify it, and unless we justify it we shall probably find it changed for us. To me it seems that any public program which men are asked to take seriously must look to the near horizon â€" that is, meet the test: "Does this hold hope for the human community in its present difficulties?" â€" or to the far horizon â€" that is, meet the test: "Does this promise well for the human community in the generations to come?" â€" or, better still, to the two horizons. In the light of these tests, I propose to offer and examine a program. II Should some Ancient Pistol demand, "Quick, in one word, your formula! Under which king, Bezonian? Speak or die!" I should answer, "education." Having recalled the mountains of the world in labor, I know this must seem a squeak from a particularly ridiculous mouse. Let me explain and qualify. Since Plato's time at least, men have been seeking salvation through education. Democratic societies from their origins have held it indis-pensable to the success of popular government. The seventeenth-century Gomenius considered it a means to international peace. In 1920 H. G. Wells, concluding his Outline of History, penned a now-famous sentence, "Human history becomes more and more a race between education and catastrophe." This conclusion follows a passage in which its author, looking out over a, London tired and shabby at the end of World War I, wrote: Beyond London the country sinks into night, and across the narrow sea are North France and Belgium devastated, Germany with scores of thousands of her infants dwindling and dying for want of milk, all Austria starving. Half the population of Vienna, it is believed unless American relief comes quickly, is doomed to die of hardship before the spring. Beyond that bleak twilight stretches the darkness of Russia.3 The passage, like some others in the Outline, reads curiously in 1948. Was Wells, who wrote his book as a contribution to the race against catastrophe, wrong? Have centuries of teaching brought.us peace? Can we indeed still mention peace and education at one breath, unless in irony or ignorance? I think we can and must. The failures of education have been legion. For a devastating, if one-sided, bill of particulars on the modern scene consult the books of Porter Sargent.4 But has education had no consequences, and left no mark on history? The legacy of Greece, the world of the medieval church, the story of the Bible and the Reformation, the schools of Victorian England and the British character, the nerve and strength of Hitler's Germany and the fact that Soviet Russia seems so formidable to us today are testimony to the effectiveness of various kinds of teaching. Their worth depends upon our scheme of 3 Third edition (New York: Macmillan, 1921), pp. 1082, 1100 quoted. 4 Especially War and Education (Boston: Sargent, 1943); Between Two Wars (Boston: Sargent, 1945).