||"LET'S CLEAR THE AIR" 9 Similarly in the earlier years of this century the emissions of sulfur dioxide from the smelting industry in the Salt Lake Valley were significantly greater than they are now. At those times there must have been grumbling and dissatisfaction about these sources of pollution, but presumably not at the level of interest which we have had in the past few years. I believe that this is partly explained by the increased wealth of the country, as I mentioned before. We once thought these pollutants were the necessary concomitants of a prosperous economy. We now doubt it. Similarly we once believed that nothing could be done about such problems. Now that we have mastered atomic energy and put men on the moon it is harder to argue that we cannot control such problems. The Ideal Approach to Air Pollution Control Passing now from the history of our awareness of air pollution, I would like to discuss what the ideal approach to air pollution control would be, and then compare this ideal to what we are now doing in this country. The wish of all concerned with air pollution is that somehow we could have a totally pollution-free environment without imposing any hardship (financial or other) on anyone to obtain it. This is possible only if we can repeal the laws of physics. Since we are apparently stuck with the laws of physics, the practical goal must be to obtain an appropriately clean environment at an appropriate cost (financial or other) appropriately distributed among those paying. The problem is to decide what values constitute appropriately clean, appropriate cost and appropriate cost distribution. Our obvious air pollution control goal should be to minimize the total cost of air pollution. Here total cost means the cost to receivers of pollution in the forms of health damage, property damage, esthetic insult, etc., and the cost to emitters in the forms of control costs, economic dislocation, balance of payments problems, etc. Thus finding the control policies which result in the minimum total air pollution cost is a minimization problem in which everyone bears two kinds of costs, his costs of pollution control as a pollution emitter, and his damage costs as a pollution receiver. Examples of our control costs as emitters are higher-cost autos with pollution-control devices, and higher-cost electricity from pollution-controlled power plants. Examples of our damage costs as pollution receivers are personal health damage with resulting medical costs and more rapid deterioration of the paint on our houses and the tires on our cars due to air pollution damage.