||"THE RIGHT MOST VALUED BY CIVILIZED MAN" 19 who worked in plants having defense contracts, and for United States citizens employed by international organizations.26 In all, it has been estimated that in excess of 12 million employees have been processed. This, however, constitutes only a part of those concerning whom dossiers and records have been established, for the' program is not limited to the designated employees. The terms of the orders perforce require an investigation of the groups and individuals with whom such employees have been associated. This being true, the number concerning whom records are on file is increased by several million. This fact in itself should cause sober reflection, for as Alan Barth has observed, records are the "blood plasma'' of the police state.27 VII. Equally significant in contributing to the diminished status of the individual has been the work of various Congressional committees concerned with "un-American activities." Stemming from the same frustrations and anxieties as the loyalty programs, these committees roamed far and wide, touching many phases of American life, probing into opinions, beliefs, and associations. That these activities represented a departure from prior congressional investigations is also a fact which has escaped needed attention. This is not to suggest that prior committees such as those which probed the scandals of the Grant administration, the Teapot Dome fiasco of the 1920's, and the manipulations of investment companies during the 1930's were models of propriety. On the contrary, many legitimate criticisms could be made and were made of their mode of conduct, but as to such investigations, it could be stated generally that they involved a search for ascertainable facts, primarily economic, which for the most part related directly to government activities. The House Un-American Activities Committee, the Senate Permanent Investigating Subcommittee, and the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee were not so restricted. Their investigations were directed towards political affiliations, social and business associations, and individual beliefs. Encouragement to exercise a free hand in determining the scope of inquiry was given by the very frame of reference under which the committees operated. By way of illustration, note the resolution adopted by the House of Representatives in May of 1938 under which the Committee on Un-American Activities was established. This resolution provided: . . . that the Speaker of the House of Representatives be, and he is hereby, authorized to appoint a special committee to be composed of seven members 26. For data concerning these programs see, Report of the Special Committee on the Federal Loyalty Security Program of the Association of the Bar of the City of New York. See especially the Appendices, 219-289 (1956). 27. Barth, The Loyalty of Free Men 158 (1952).