||192 Utah Historical Quarterly winter; and suitable buildings erected as soon as the necessary funds can be obtained for that purpose. In extending, and making new settlements, one uniform course has been recommended; that of building and settling in forts in the first instance, and farming in one enclosure. This course has proven highly successful;-nevertheless, we have been compelled, in order to sustain ourselves and our settlements, to make two expeditions against the native tribes; one against the Timpanogos last February, of which you were informed; the other against a portion of the Shoshones, in September last. This last expedition was conducted strictly upon the defensive, and every effort made to attain to a peaceful adjustment of all difficulties unfortunately existing. The Indians having fled, were not encountered by our detachment, but recent reports seem favorable to a peaceful termination. All the Indians with whom we have had difficulties, are detached or broken off bands from the main tribes; with them, our peaceful relations have never been interrupted.-We have spared no time or expense in endeavoring to conciliate the Indians, and learn them to leave off their habits of pilfering and plundering, and work like other people; but habits of civilization seem not to be in accordance with their physical formation; many that have tried it, pine away, and unless returning to their former habits of living, died in a very short time. Could they be induced to live peaceably and keep herds of cattle, their condition would very materially be ameliorated, and gradually induce a return to the habits of civilization. It becomes us to be prepared to repel sudden invasions as they generally come at an unexpected moment. To this end I would recommend a more efficient organization of the militia, and strict requirements of officer's reports, and uniform distribution of public service; also, that sufficient means be appropriated to defray the expenses of repairing and housing the public arms, ordnance, &c, and purchasing supplies of camp equipages, baggage, waggons, and teams. Unparalleled in the history of the times, not a solitary case was reported for trial, before the regular sessions of either the county or supreme courts, during the past year; and no offence beyond the control of a justice of the peace seems to have been committed.-This argues favorably in behalf of justice's courts having extended jurisdiction, and probably, is partly owing to the requirements of the law, making it the duty of all officers to seek to allay and compromise differences, instead of promoting litigation. It is highly necessary that a court of probate should be organized, or else the duties of probate courts and public administrator be devolved upon some office now organized.-The estray pound, enclosures, and herding, are each of them subjects requiring your most careful attention, being fruitful sources of complaint.