||VEGETATION, SOIL AND WATER 29 frequently allowed to remain there and to disappear through the natural processes of decay and putrifaction. In the spring of 1946, with no object of a survey in mind, I observed three such carcasses while walking through and near the feeding area. In October, 1927, before deer concentrations had presented new problems to the Mountain Dell water supply, H. B. Hommon, Sanitary Engineer for the U. S. Public Health Service, made a survey of Salt Lake City's watersheds. His report to the city describes the unfavorable sanitary conditions of the Mountain Dell Reservoir resulting from 150,000 sheep trailing directly in front of it on their way to and from their summer ranges. He points out the highway and railroad facilities in Parley's Canyon for hauling sheep and says: "It is recommended that the sheep trail across the creek at the upper end of Mountain Dell reservoir be closed and that no more herds be allowed to cross over it. It is the duty of every city to provide clean water as well as pure water, and there is no doubt whatever that the manure washed from the trail into the reservoir contributes towards the development of algae and other small forms of life that produce tastes and odors in the water. The conditions at the upper end of the reservoir would not be tolerated on the watershed of the water supply of any other city in the country." Looking north from the pioneer pass of Little Mountain, one may observe a panoramic spectacle of grazing abuses in Emigration Canyon. Over the old trail to the foot of Little Mountain where the pioneers established their last camp before entering Salt Lake Valley, a gully similar to the one on Parley's Canyon side defaces the canyon profile. Numerous sheep trails and an impoverished plant cover over the entire south facing slope of Emigration Canyon to the "This is the Place" monument present a run-off area rife with flood hazards to Salt Lake City. The combined denuded areas of the Emigration Canyon drainage as well as the generally depleted forage cover are strangely reminiscent of the conditions that caused the million dollar floods in Davis County. Residents of the new homes built in the bottom of the drainage east of 15th East Street in Salt Lake City may well protest these flood hazards, and other citizens living west of this area should be cognizant of them. When one observes the depleted plant cover in Emigration Canyon, it is significant to recall Apostle Erastus Snow's description of the area a hundred years ago when he wrote:16 "The thicket down the narrows at the mouth of the canyon was so dense that we could not penetrate through it. I crawled on my hands and knees through this thicket until I was compelled to return." In a comparative study8 of the vegetation of Emigration Canyon and Red Butte Canyon, Dr. Evans and I found that this description of Apostle Snow's applied very well to Red Butte Canyon today, where grazing has been prohibited for nearly fifty years. The investigations show that unwise grazing practices and sheep trailing have reduced the forage cover in Emigration Canyon more than half and that sheet erosion and gully formation are widespread.