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1 "Pseudonystagmus" Due to Bilateral Vestibular Loss and Head TremorThis is a 65-yo-woman with complaints of imbalance, dizziness, and horizontal oscillopsia. On exam, she had a high frequency, low amplitude (mainly horizontal) head tremor, and with ophthalmoscopy, the optic nerve was clearly oscillating back and forth at the same frequency as her head tremor, which...Image/MovingImage
2 + HIT, + Skew, Unidirectional Nystagmus: Central Acute Vestibular Syndrome Due to Wallenberg SyndromeThis is a 45-year-old woman who presented to the ED with acute prolonged vertigo and vertical diplopia. She was seen as an outpatient 1 month after her ED visit, and double vision and balance were improving by that time. Her HINTS testing showed the following (seen in the video): 1) Head Impulse - A...Image/MovingImage
3 3rd Nerve Palsy With Preserved 4th Nerve Function80-yo-woman with a left vasculopathic 3rd nerve palsy (minimal pupil involvement of about 1 mm relative mydriasis OS - other etiologies ruled out and resolved as expected over months). Although the inferior rectus is paretic, intact superior oblique muscle function can be demonstrated by asking the ...Image/MovingImage
4 6th nerve palsy as initial presentation of metastatic lung cancerA video describing 6th nerve palsy as initial presentation of metastatic lung cancer.Image/MovingImage
5 A Comparison of Nystagmus and Saccadic Intrusions/OscillationsNystagmus can be classified into pendular and jerk waveforms, where both are generated by a slow, pathologic phase. Corrective phase (the position reset mechanism) differs. In pendular nystagmus, the eyes move back and forth with about the same velocity and amplitude, similar to that of a pendulum...Image
6 Aberrant Regeneration of the 3rd NerveAberrant regeneration in two patients: 1) a young woman with a right cavernous sinus meningioma with subsequent development of aberrant regeneration demonstrated by eyelid elevation OD in attempted downgaze (i.e., some fibers that were supposed to innervate the right IR were misrouted to the right l...Image/MovingImage
7 Abnormal Active Head Impulse Testing Recorded Asynchronously in Bilateral Vestibular LossThis is a video of patient with the subacute onset of head movement-dependent oscillopsia due to bilateral vestibular loss (with obvious bilaterally abnormal head impulse test (HIT) at the bedside), in addition to central ocular motor signs including saccadic smooth pursuit and gaze-evoked nystagmus...Image/MovingImage
8 Abnormal Head Impulse Test in Vestibular Neuritis 1 Week After OnsetThis is a 25-year-old woman who experienced the acute vestibular syndrome due to right-sided vestibular neuritis 1 week prior to this video. Left-beating nystagmus (LBN) was only noted in left gaze, but with fixation-removed, there was clear LBN in primary position that increased with head-shaking a...Image/MovingImage
9 Abnormal Visually-Enhanced VOR in Cerebellar Ataxia, Neuropathy, Vestibular Areflexia Syndrome (CANVAS)A 67 year old woman presented with 1 year of progressive numbness, gait instability, and oscillopsia when walking or with head movements. Examination showed excessive square-wave jerks, bilateral horizontal gaze-evoked nystagmus, impairment of the visually-enhanced vestibular ocular reflex (vVOR - s...Image/MovingImage
10 Acquired Elliptical Pendular Nystagmus Suppressed by Blinks and SaccadesThis is a 70-year-old man who experienced the gradual onset of oscillopsia over weeks about 3 months prior to this video recording. Examination demonstrated elliptical pendular nystagmus which was atypical for infantile nystagmus or oculopalatal tremor (no palatal tremor on exam). The remainder of t...Image/MovingImage
11 Acute Vestibular Neuritis With Unidirectional Nystagmus and Abnormal Video Head Impulse TestThis is 45-year-old man who presented to the emergency department (ED) 2 days prior to this video recording with acute onset prolonged vertigo, nausea, head motion intolerance, unsteadiness and spontaneous nystagmus, consistent with the acute vestibular syndrome. Video-oculography examination in the...Image/MovingImage
12 The acute vestibular syndrome in MS due to middle cerebellar peduncle/root entry zone lesionThis is a 13 year-old girl with relatively abrupt onset vertigo and oscillopsia. On exam, there was primarily right-beating nystagmus in primary gaze with a slight upward (upbeat) component, giving the nystagmus an oblique appearance. The upward component and lack of a clear torsional component acut...Image/MovingImage
13 The acute vestibular syndrome with dysarthria, dysphagia, dysphonia, hemi-ataxia, and saccadic dysmetria due to the lateral medullary (Wallenberg) syndromeThis is a 50-year-old woman with the acute onset of vertigo, dysarthria, dysphagia and dysphonia/hoarseness (nucleus ambiguus), ptosis and imbalance. Her examination localized to a left lateral medullary (Wallenberg) syndrome - there was decreased sensation on the left side of the face (spinal trige...Image/MovingImage
14 Acute Vestibular Syndrome with ocular tilt reaction due to bacterial labyrinthitisThis is a patient who initially presented with the acute vestibular syndrome (AVS, e.g., acute prolonged vertigo, spontaneous nystagmus) and right sided hearing loss, and was diagnosed with bacterial labyrinthritis. Her HINTS (Head Impulse, Nystagmus, Test of Skew) testing indicated a central etiolo...Image/MovingImage
15 Acute Vestibular Syndrome With Skew Deviation and Positive Head Impulse Test Due to a Demyelinating LesionThis is a patient who initially presented with the acute vestibular syndrome (AVS, e.g., acute prolonged vertigo, spontaneous nystagmus). ; See https://collections.lib.utah.edu/details?id=187730 for additional history. ; Her HINTS (Head Impulse, Nystagmus, Test of Skew) testing indicated a central e...Image/MovingImage
16 The acute vestibular syndrome with skew deviation, gaze-evoked nystagmus, and bilaterally abnormal head impulse testing due to AICA strokeThis is a 60-year-old man with the acute onset of prolonged vertigo and nystagmus, consistent with the acute vestibular syndrome (AVS). HINTS (Head Impulse, Nystagmus, Test of Skew) exam demonstrated a central pattern: 1) Head impulse test (HIT) was abnormal to the right and to the left. An abnormal...Image/MovingImage
17 Alternating Hypertropias - Bilateral 4th Nerve Palsies and Alternating Skew DeviationSeen here are two patients with alternating hypertropias. The first is a 70-year-old woman with a diagnosis of cerebellar ataxia, neuropathy, vestibular areflexia syndrome (CANVAS). In the video, both spontaneous downbeat nystagmus (DBN) and gaze-evoked nystagmus (GEN) are apparent, in addition to a...Image/MovingImage
18 Anterior Canal - BPPV: Deep Head HangingRegardless or whether it is thought that the patient has right or left anterior canal (AC) involvement, the deep head hanging maneuver is performed in the same way. • First the patient is placed in the long-sitting position • Then the patient is moved into a supine position with the head in at l...Image/MovingImage
19 Anterior Canal BPPVAlthough the anterior canal (AC) variant of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is rare, mainly owing to its orientation relative to gravity (which makes otoconial debris much less likely to enter it), it can occur. Because of the relatively para-sagittal orientation of the AC (more so than ...Image/MovingImage
20 Anti-GAD Associated Cerebellopathy and Bilateral VestibulopathyThis is a 70-year-old woman with the subacute onset of severe imbalance and dizziness. On her initial examination, she had prominent gaze-evoked nystagmus and bilateral vestibular loss. Smooth pursuit was saccadic, although her vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) suppression was much smoother. Usually pur...Image/MovingImage
21 The Apogeotropic Variant of Horizontal Canal BPPVThis is a patient with the apogeotropic (nystagmus beating towards the sky) variant of right horizontal canal (HC) benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). In a patient with geotropic (nystagmus beating towards the ground) HC BPPV, by rapidly moving from a sitting to a supine position with the h...Image/MovingImage
22 Approach to the Ocular Motor and Vestibular History and ExaminationHistory and examination of ocular motor and vestibular.Text
23 Apraclonidine testing in Horner's syndromeThis patient experienced relatively abrupt ptosis and was seen and diagnosed with a Horner's syndrome within a few days of the onset. There were no other exam findings and history did not offer clues as to the etiology. Neuroimaging of the oculosympathetic tract was unrevealing. Apraclonidine testin...Image/MovingImage
24 Assessing for hyperventilation-induced nystagmusHyperventilation induced nystagmus is tested by asking the patient to take quick deep breaths (~1/s) for 40-60 seconds. This decreases ICP and increases CSF pH. This can be helpful in diagnosing irritative conditions of the vestibular nerve, including an acoustic neuroma (see video, https://collect...Image/MovingImage
25 Atypical ocular motor features (gaze-evoked nystagmus) in PSPThis is a 70-yo-woman who met clinical and radiologic diagnostic criteria for progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Typical ocular motor features of PSP include square wave jerks, hypometric saccades, choppy pursuit/VORS, impaired down>upgaze (supranuclear in origin) and impaired down>upward saccade...Image/MovingImage
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