||28 ROBERT E. HELBLING 20. For instance, in The World According to Garp, the film based on the novel by John Irving, the viewpoint remains equivocal in many episodes, as in the portrayal of the group of women who have their tongues cut out in painful and inarticulate protest against the trauma of statutory rape. 21. C. Malaparte, The Skin (Boston, 1952), pp. 299-300. 22. J. Heller, Catch-22 (New York, 1955-65), pp. 347-8. 23. I owe this reference to MAD to my friend Lee B. Jennings. 24. I read about this episode for the first time in a book review published in the London Times Literary Supplement (TLS) appr. two years ago, but could no longer locate the exact issue. 25. F. Diirrenmatt, "Problems of the Theatre," trans. Gerhard Nellhaus, in Four Plays 1957-62 (London, 1964), p. 33. 26. F. Diirrenmatt, ibid., pp. 33-4. 27. R.M. Roberts in a review of Richard Sennett's The Frog Who Dared to Croak in The New York Review of Books, August, 1982. 28. cf. G. Harpham, "The Grotesque: First Principles" in Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, 34, 1975/76, p. 464. 29. cf. J.G. Fichte, Grundziige des gegenwdrtigen Zeitalters, trans, as The Characteristics of the Present Age (1844). 30. My theory of the contemporary grotesque could be characterized with the ugly term "disjunctionism": the literary and artistic strategy of resorting to seeming cruel understatement or loony buffoonery to remind us of ultimate values such as life itself, leads to a grotesque "disjunction" between "form" and "content," or "style" and "topic." Victor Hugo's "folism," Wolfgang Kayser's "ontologism," and the psychologistic "exorcism"-theory will prove inadequate in explaining the grotesque in the contemporary world.