||THE POWER OF "NEGATIVE" THINKING 27 Footnotes 1. cf. G. Santayana, The Sense of Beauty (London, 1896); Analysis of Grotesque Art, pp. 256-8. 2. cf. G.W.F. Hegel, The Philosophy of Fine Art, trans. F.P.B. Osmaston (London, 1920). 3. From a poem by the contemporary French poet Michel Leiris, "Marecage du sommeil." 4. quoted by N.N. Holland, Laughing, a Psychology of Humor (Ithaca, 1982), p. 107. 5. quoted by W. Kayser, The Grotesque in Art and Literature, trans. Ulrich Weisstein (Bloomington, 1963), p. 69. 6. quoted by W. Kayser, ibid., p. 70. 7. cf. F.W.G. Hegel, op.cit. 8. W. Kayser, op.cit., p. 185. 9. quoted by W. Kayser, ibid., p. 76. 10. This is a formulation made current among critics of the grotesque by Lee B. Jennings in his The Ludicrous Demon. Aspects of the Grotesque in German Post-Romantic Prose (Berkeley/Los Angeles, 1963). 11. cf. Nikolas Kiuj'e, Japanese Grotesqueries, introd. Terence Barrow (Rutland, Vt., 1973). 12. W. Van O'Connor, The Grotesque: An American Genre and Other Essays (Carbondale, 1962), p. 4. 13. cf. W. Van O'Connor, ibid., p. 14. 14. quoted by N.N. Holland, op.cit., p. 15. Treatises focussing specifically on laughter are not very numerous in our century. Freud's theory on jokes with their attendant laughter as a manifestation of subconscious aggressiveness, even sadism, in Jokes and Their Relation with the Unconscious (1905) could be mentioned. A classic treatise is Henri Bergson's Le Rire (1900, trans, as Laughter, 1911), an investigation of our reaction to comedy in its scope rather limited. Arthur Koestler in The Act of Creation, discusses emotional responses to various types of humor. Norman N. Holland in his just published work mentioned above provides valuable insights into the "Conditions," "Psychology," "Physiology" of laughter. 15. These ideas have been expounded in much more detail by Philip Thomson in an unpublished paper read at an MLA seminar. 16. T. Leary, R. Metzner, and R. Alpert, The Psychedelic Experience: A Manual Based on the Tibetan Book of the Dead (New Hyde Park, N.Y., 1964). 17. In recent newspaper releases one could read that Prof. Albert E. Millar Jr., Chairman of the English Department at Newport College, VA, is running into some legal troubles with the producers of the film E.T. for suggesting in a published booklet that there are 33 parallels between E.T.'s terrestrial visit and the life of Christ. I wrote my lecture before I heard of Prof. Millar's tribulations but was struck by the similarity between his perceptions and mine. 18. M. Steig, "The Grotesque and Aesthetic Response in Shakespeare, Dickens and Giinter Grass," in Comparative Literature Studies, 6 (1969), p. 178. 19. G. Grass, The Tin Drum (New York, 1961), p. 202.