Characterization of the chicken GCAP gene array and analyses of GCAP1, GCAP2, and GC1 gene expression in normal and rd chicken pineal

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Publication Type Journal Article
School or College School of Medicine
Department Ophthalmology
Creator Baehr, Wolfgang
Other Author Semple-Rowland, S L; Larkin, P; Bronson, J D; Nykamp, K; Streit, W J
Title Characterization of the chicken GCAP gene array and analyses of GCAP1, GCAP2, and GC1 gene expression in normal and rd chicken pineal
Date 1999
Description PURPOSE: This study had three objectives: (1) to characterize the structures of the chicken GCAP1 and GCAP2 genes; (2) to determine if GCAP1, GCAP2, and GC1 genes are expressed in chicken pineal gland; (3) if GC1 is expressed in chicken pineal, to determine if the GC1 null mutation carried by the retinal degeneration (rd) chicken is associated with degenerative changes within the pineal glands of these animals. METHODS: GCAP1 and GCAP2 gene structures were determined by analyses of chicken cosmid and cDNA clones. The putative transcription start points for these genes were determined using 5'-RACE. GCAP1, GCAP2 and GC1 transcripts were analyzed using Northern blot and RT-PCR. Routine light microscopy was used to examine pineal morphology. RESULTS: Chicken GCAP1 and GCAP2 genes are arranged in a tail-to-tail array. Each protein is encoded by 4 exons that are interrupted by 3 introns of variable length, the positions of which are identical within each gene. The putative transcription start points for GCAP1 and GCAP2 are 314 and 243 bases upstream of the translation start codons of these genes, respectively. As in retina, GCAP1, GCAP2 and GC1 genes are expressed in the chicken pineal. Although the GC1 null mutation is present in both the retina and pineal of the rd chicken, only the retina appears to undergo degeneration. CONCLUSIONS: The identical arrangement of chicken, human, and mouse GCAP1/2 genes suggests that these genes originated from an ancient gene duplication/inversion event that occurred during evolution prior to vertebrate diversification. The expression of GC1, GCAP1, and GCAP2 in chicken pineal is consistent with the hypothesis that chicken pineal contains a functional phototransduction cascade. The absence of cellular degeneration in the rd pineal gland suggests that GC1 is not critical for pineal cell survival.
Type Text
Publisher Molecular Vision
Volume 5
Issue 14
Subject Molecular Sequence Data; Promoter Regions (Genetics); Retinal Degeneration
Subject MESH Calcium-Binding Proteins; Guanylate Cyclase; Pineal Gland
Language eng
Bibliographic Citation Semple-Rowland SL, Larkin P, Bronson JD, Nykamp K, Streit WJ, Baehr W. (1999). Characterization of the chicken GCAP gene array and analyses of GCAP1, GCAP2, and GC1 gene expression in normal and rd chicken pineal. Molecular Vision, 5(14).
Rights Management (c) Molecular Vision
Format Medium application/pdf
Identifier ir-main,1725
ARK ark:/87278/s6df78gz
Setname ir_uspace
Date Created 2012-06-13
Date Modified 2012-08-30
ID 703919
Reference URL https://collections.lib.utah.edu/ark:/87278/s6df78gz