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TitleDescriptionSubject
1 Caloric TestingCaloric testing is a peripheral vestibular test which takes advantage of the fact that the labyrinth is sensitive to temperature changes. Warm stimulation causes excitation of the semicircular canals while cold stimulation causes inhibition of the semicircular canals. Caloric testing is performed by...Normal VOR; Abnormal VOR; Vestibular Lab Testing; Calorics
2 Cerebellar eye signs in SCA8This is a 30-yo-man with a diagnosis of SCA 8 who had appendicular and gait ataxia in addition to choppy smooth pursuit and VORS, downbeat nystagmus, saccadic hypermetria, and gaze-evoked nystagmus with rebound nystagmus. He also had an esotropia worse at distance, which is commonly found with cereb...Saccadic dysmetria; Downbeat nystagmus; Gaze-evoked nystagmus; Vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) supression; Saccades
3 Neuro-Ophthalmic Features and Pseudo-MG Lid Signs in Miller Fisher SyndromeThis is a 51-year-old woman who presented with imbalance, acute onset dizziness and diplopia that developed over three days following two weeks of upper respiratory infection and bacterial conjunctivitis. When she was initially seen as an outpatient, nystagmus was noted to the right and left, and a ...Abnormal VOR; Miller Fisher Syndrome; Myasthenia Gravis; Acute Vestibular Syndrome; Jerk Nystagmus; Gaze Evoked Nystagmus
4 Neuro-Ophthalmic Features and Pseudo-MG Lid Signs in Miller Fisher Syndrome - Figure 1This is a 51-year-old woman who presented with imbalance, acute onset dizziness and diplopia that developed over three days following two weeks of upper respiratory infection and bacterial conjunctivitis. When she was initially seen as an outpatient, nystagmus was noted to the right and left, and a ...Abnormal VOR; Miller Fisher Syndrome; Myasthenia Gravis; Acute Vestibular Syndrome; Jerk Nystagmus; Gaze Evoked Nystagmus
5 Nystagmus due to paraneoplastic (anti-Yo) brainstem and cerebellar degenerationThis is a 40-yo-woman with anti-Yo antibody associated with ovarian cancer. Initial symptoms 2.5 years prior (to this video) included imbalance and dysarthria. She complained of oscillopsia which was due to her upbeat nystagmus (presumably the result of brainstem involvement), and diplopia (she had ...Abnormal Saccades, Abnormal VORS, Cerebellar, Jerk Nystagmus, Upbeat Nystagmus, Gaze Evoked Nystagmus,
6 Ocular Motor Signs in Early Progressive Supranuclear PalsyThis is a 64-year old man who experienced imbalance and falls (usually backwards) for the last 6 months. He experienced difficulty navigating stairs and had become a messy eater (thought to be in large part due to his vertical gaze palsy), and had developed hypophonia. Exam demonstrated square wave ...Abnormal Saccades; Abnormal Convergence; Abnormal Pursuit; Abnormal Range; Abnormal VORS; Vertical Gaze Palsy; Downgaze Palsy; OMS Mesencephalon
7 Ocular Motor Signs in SCA 6This is a 45-yo-man who was recently diagnosed with SCA 6. There was no clear spontaneous downbeat nystagmus (DBN) in primary gaze, although DBN could clearly be provoked by convergence. Other ocular motor features included choppy pursuit and VOR suppression horizontally and vertically, in addition ...Abnormal Convergence; Abnormal VORS; OMS Cerebellar; Downbeat Nystagmus; Jerk Nystagmus; Gaze Evoked Nystagmus; Rebound Nystagmus
8 Ocular Motor Signs of Cerebellar Ataxia - Gaze-Evoked Nystagmus, Saccadic Pursuit, and VOR supressionThis is a 30-year-old woman with a several year long history of imbalance due to cerebellar ataxia of unclear etiology. Seen in this video are common ocular motor signs in patients with advanced cerebellar dysfunction including: 1) saccadic smooth pursuit, 2) saccadic vestibulo-ocular reflex suppres...Jerk Nystagus; Gaze-Evoked Nystagmus; Abnormal Pursuit; Abnormal VORS; Rebound Nystagmus
9 PSP with Complete Ophthalmoplegia and Inability to Suppress the VORThis is a 65-year-old woman presenting with visual complaints in the setting of advanced progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). She had complete vertical and horizontal ophthalmoplegia, although the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) could overcome the horizontal gaze palsy (but not the vertical gaze pals...Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP); VOR Supression; Mesencephalon; Horizontal Gaze Palsy; Vertical Gaze Palsy
10 Paraflocculus (Tonsillar) Ocular Motor Syndrome and Dysmetria in a Chiari Malformation - Pre and Post-Operative ExamsThis is a 25-year-old woman presenting with 6 months or progressive imbalance, binocular vertical diplopia, and occipital headaches, which were brought on or aggravated by coughing or sneezing. Examination demonstrated hyperreflexia in the arms and legs with sustained clonus at the ankles and Babins...Saccades; Skew Diviation; VOR Supression; Pursuit; Medulla
11 Pons: 6th, 7th, 8th, and Middle Cerebellar Peduncle AnatomyFrom this cross-section of the pons, the proximity of the 7th and 8th fascicles can be appreciated, and a lateral inferior pontine syndrome (anterior inferior cerebellar artery territory), which could involve both of these fascicles, could cause acute prolonged vertigo accompanied by a + ipsilateral...Sixth Nerve Palsy; OMS Pons; Facial Nerve; VOR Normal; VOR Abnormal
12 Rotary Chair TestingRotary chair testing includes rotation around a vertical axis, and evaluates the horizontal semicircular canal vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). The patient sits in a mechanized chair with the head secured in a neutral position or in 30 degree forward flexion (to better isolate the horizontal canals)....Normal VOR; Abnormal VOR; Vestibular Lab Testing; Rotary Chair
13 Saccadic smooth pursuit and vestibulo-ocular reflex suppression (VORS)This is a 20-yo-man who suffered a left MCA stroke years prior. Upon evaluation of his eye movements, saccades and all classes of eye movements were normal, although his smooth pursuit and VORS were choppy to the left (ipsilesional) and normal to the right. When pursuit and VORS (which are usually e...Smooth pursuit; Vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) supression
14 Slow Saccades Due to Unilateral Paramedian Pontine Reticular Formation (PPRF) Injury with Preserved Movements Using the Vestibulo-Ocular ReflexThis is a 60-year-old man who presented for imbalance and oscillopsia 10 months after surgery and 8 months after radiation for Merkel cell carcinoma of the neck. He developed imbalance after surgery and diplopia and oscillopsia 6 months prior to our evaluation. MRI showed enhancement of both 6th n...Abnormal Saccades; Pons OMS; Sixth Abducens Nerve; Abnormal VOR; Vestibulocochlear Nerve; Horizontal Gaze Palsy
15 Test Your Knowledge - Central and Peripheral Vestibular and Ocular Motor Signs Due to a Large Vestibular SchwannomaWhich of the following is least likely to be the correct localization or etiology given the findings seen in the video? 1) Acute right 8th cranial neuropathy 2) Right-sided vestibular schwannoma 3) Right vestibular nucleus infarction 4) Right anterior inferior cerebellar artery distribution stroke A...Abnormal VOR; Jerk Nystagmus; Vestibular Nystagmus; Gaze Evoked Nystagmus; Bruns Nystagmus; Cerebellar OMS
16 Test Your Knowledge: The Acute Vestibular Syndrome with Gaze-Evoked Nystagmus and Bilaterally Abnormal Head Impulse Testing Due to Middle Cerebellar Peduncle and Flocculus HemorrhageThis is a 70-year-old woman with a history of atrial fibrillation on warfarin presenting with acute prolonged vertigo and imbalance. In addition to the findings demonstrated in the first part of the video, what else should be seen to reassure the examiner that the etiology of her vertigo is benign? ...Abnormal VOR; Jerk Nystagmus; Acute Vestibular Syndrome; Cerebellar OMS; Gaze Evoked Nystagmus
17 Using Video Head Impulse Testing to Unmask Covert Saccades in Compensated Vestibular Neuritis - Figures 1 and 2This is a 30-year-old woman who experienced the acute vestibular syndrome (prolonged vertigo for >24 hours, nausea, unsteadiness, spontaneous nystagmus, head motion intolerance) and was diagnosed with vestibular neuritis. This diagnosis was based on a positive head impulse test to the left (see Figu...VOR Normal; VOR Abnormal
18 Using Video Head Impulse Testing to Unmask Covert Saccades in Compensated Vestibular VeuritisThis is a 30-year-old woman who experienced the acute vestibular syndrome (prolonged vertigo for >24 hours, nausea, unsteadiness, spontaneous nystagmus, head motion intolerance) and was diagnosed with vestibular neuritis. This diagnosis was based on a positive head impulse test to the left (see Figu...VOR Normal; VOR Abnormal
19 Vestibular Neuritis with a Peripheral Skew DeviationThis is a 55-year-old hypertensive man who developed acute onset continuous vertigo and presented to the Emergency Department (ED) after several hours of symptoms. He was noted to have spontaneous nystagmus and had a normal brain MRI within the first 24 hours. The first portion of the video was rec...Abnormal VOR; Abnormal Alignment; Eighth Nerve; Skew Deviation; Lateropulsion; Jerk Nystagmus; Vestibular Nystagmus; Acute Vestibular Syndrome
20 Video Head Impulse TestingThe video head impulse test (vHIT) is a clinical assessment technique used to assess the function of the semicircular canals-the angular acceleration detectors-which initiate the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). The HIT and vHIT are performed similarly (see assessment of VOR using HIT video LINK), alt...Normal VOR; Abnormal VOR; Vestibular Lab Testing; Video Head Impulse Testing
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