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TitleDescriptionType
201 The utriculo-ocular motor pathways - physiologic and pathologic ocular tilt reaction: Pathologic OTR (Figure 2)A skew deviation is a non-paralytic vertical ocular misalignment that is due to imbalance in the utriculo-ocular motor pathways. While vestibular jerk nystagmus is a consequence of static semicircular canal pathway imbalance (e.g., left-beating nystagmus due to acute right vestibular hypofunction fr...
202 Vestibular neuritis with a peripheral skew deviationThis is a 55-year-old hypertensive man who developed acute onset continuous vertigo and presented to the Emergency Department (ED) after several hours of symptoms. He was noted to have spontaneous nystagmus and had a normal brain MRI within the first 24 hours. The first portion of the video was rec...
203 Head-Shaking-Induced Nystagmus Following Ramsay Hunt VestibulopathyThis is a 50-year-old man who experienced the abrupt onset of imbalance, dizziness and left-sided hearing loss 4 months prior to this examination. He was found to have herpetic vesicles in the left external auditory canal and diagnosed with Ramsay Hunt syndrome. On exam (4 months after the onset), t...
204 Vibration-induced nystagmus in a patient with vestibular neuritisThis is a 60-year-old man who experienced the sudden onset of vertigo, oscillopsia, imbalance, nausea and vomiting. He was seen in the emergency department within hours and had spontaneous right-beating (RBN) and torsional (top poles toward right ear) nystagmus that was unidirectional in all directi...
205 Test Your Knowledge - Ocular tilt reaction and subjective visual verticalLesions of which of the following neuro-anatomic structures could result in the clinical findings shown? A. Right medulla B. Right interstitial nucleus of Cajal C. Right medial longitudinal fasciculus D. Left trochlear nerve E. Right caudal midbrain A. Correct. This patient presents with elements...
206 Test Your Knowledge - Vertical-torsional nystagmusQuestion #1:; Watch the first portion of the video until you are told to stop. Is this vestibular nystagmus more likely to be peripheral or central? ; A.; Peripheral ; B.; Central ; Answer for #1:; A.; Incorrect. While the patient has upbeat-torsional (top poles beating toward the right ear) nystagm...
207 The most common vestibular conditions categorized by timing and triggers, with specific historical features that should be sought for each (adapted from Approach to the Ocular Motor and Vestibular History and Examination)BPPV = benign paroxysmal positional vertigo; SCDS = superior canal dehiscence syndrome; BVL = bilateral vestibular loss; PPPD = persistent postural perceptual dizziness; MDDS = Mal de debarquement syndrome
208 Abnormal Head Impulse Test in Vestibular Neuritis 1 Week After OnsetThis is a 25-year-old woman who experienced the acute vestibular syndrome due to right-sided vestibular neuritis 1 week prior to this video. Left-beating nystagmus (LBN) was only noted in left gaze, but with fixation-removed, there was clear LBN in primary position that increased with head-shaking a...
209 Test Your Knowledge - The acute vestibular syndrome and ptosisWhat is the most likely localization in this patient presenting with vertical diplopia and acute onset prolonged vertigo? ; A.; Right medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF); B.; Left medial longitudinal fasciculus ; C.; Right medulla; D.; Left medulla; E.; Left midbrain; ; A.; Incorrect. A right MLF l...
210 HINTS exam and saccadic dysmetria in lateral medullary strokeThis is a 50-year-old who experienced the abrupt onset of prolonged vertigo following chiropractic therapy 2 months prior. Initial work-up included an MRI and MR angiogram - MR-diffusion weighted imaging showed an acute left lateral medullary stroke and left vertebral artery occlusion, which was tho...
211 Superior Canal DehiscenceThis is a 60-yo-man who complained of autophony (eg, hearing his own heartbeat, noting that his own voice sounded too loud) and dizziness triggered with loud noises and straining at times. With pinched-nose Valsalva maneuver, there was downbeat-torsional (towards the right ear) nystagmus, suggestive...Image/MovingImage
212 Central HINTS (with an abnormal head impulse sign) in the acute vestibular syndrome due to lateral pontine/middle cerebellar peduncle demyelinationThis is a 30-year-old man presenting with vertigo, diplopia and mild left facial weakness (not seen in the video). On exam, there was right-beating nystagmus (RBN) in primary gaze that increased in right gaze (in accordance with Alexander's law), and the RBN stayed unidirectional, but lessened, in l...
213 One-and-a-half syndrome due to pontine hemorrhageThis is a 50-year-old woman who, while exercising in the gym, suddenly experienced vertigo, nausea, vomiting, tingling in the left arm, and diplopia. MRI demonstrated a brainstem hemorrhage that involved the right greater than left pons. Examination demonstrated a right horizontal gaze palsy due to ...
214 Ocular bobbing due to hepatic encephalopathyThis is a 55-year-old man presented with hepatic encephalopathy, and found to have ocular bobbing. Head CT did not show any acute changes. Ocular bobbing almost always localizes to the pons, although cerebellar pathology has also (rarely) been identified as a cause. Typical bobbing consists of rhyth...Image/MovingImage
215 Oculogyric crisisThis is a patient with neuroleptic-induced oculogyric crisis.
216 Square wave jerks and macrosaccadic oscillations in a patient with a cerebellar tumorThis is a 40-year-old man who developed severe headaches, confusion, and gait imbalance which led to neuroimaging which demonstrated a midline cerebellar mass with compression of the fourth ventricle and obstructive hydrocephalus. He underwent a suboccipital craniectomy for resection of the mass, an...
217 Dix-Hallpike maneuver in posterior BPPV with reversal of nystagmus on sitting upThis is a patient with typical posterior canal (PC) benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), which is provoked by the Dix-Hallpike maneuver. When the patient is moved into the right Dix-Hallpike maneuver, after a brief latency, upbeat-torsional (towards the lowermost or affected [right] ear) nys...
218 Ocular motor signs in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP)This is a 65-yo-woman complaining of imbalance and double vision. She had significant convergence insufficiency (and would close her right eye with near viewing), providing an explanation for her diplopia. Convergence insufficiency is very common with parkinsonism. She had bradykinesia and rigidity,...Image/MovingImage
219 Vertical semicircular canal pathwaysAnterior Canal Pathway Afferents that originate in the anterior canals (AC) of the peripheral labyrinth first synapse in the ipsilateral vestibular nucleus. Three pathways exist: 1) medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) - right AC afferents to right medial vestibular nucleus (MVN), decussate and asc...
220 Reversal of vertical nystagmus with convergence in anti-DPPX encephalitisThis is a man who initially presented with spontaneous upbeat and torsional nystagmus, which led to the diagnosis of anti-DPPX encephalitis (for further details on this patient's course and for a video of his nystagmus, see reference 1). Over 6-12 months, his spontaneous (mainly) upbeat nystagmus (U...
221 Lateral pontine stroke involving the superior vestibular nucleus causing spontaneous upbeat-torsional nystagmusA 65-year-old man presented to the emergency department with spontaneous vertigo and unsteadiness, and had was noted to have spontaneous upbeat nystagmus (UBN), also with a torsional component (top poles beating toward the right ear) that was most noticeable in right and up gaze. General neurologic ...Image/MovingImage
222 The most common audiovestibular laboratory tests, and the specific conditions in which they may assist in making or supporting the diagnosisVN = vestibular neuritis; VM = vestibular migraine; VP = vestibular paroxysmia; vHIT = video head impulse test; VNG = video-nystagmography; ENG = electronystagmography; VOG = video-oculography; VEMPs = vestibular evoked myogenic potentials; SCDS = superior canal dehiscence syndrome; BPPV = benign pa...
223 The most common vestibular conditions categorized by timing and triggers, with specific ocular motor and vestibular features that should be sought for eachHINTS+ = Head Impulse, Nystagmus, Test of Skew, ‘Plus' bedside assessment of auditory function; HIT = head impulse test; NP = nerve palsy; BPPV = benign paroxysmal positional vertigo; SCDS = superior canal dehiscence syndrome; BVL = bilateral vestibular loss; PPPD = persistent postural perceptual ...
224 Hyperventilation-induced downbeat nystagmus in a cerebellar disorderThis is a 45-year-old woman with a chronic progressive cerebellopathy of unclear etiology (worsening over at least 10 years) characterized by gait and limb ataxia, gaze-evoked nystagmus, saccadic pursuit and vestibulo-ocular reflex suppression, an esotropia greater at distance, along with very mild ...
225 3rd nerve palsy with preserved 4th nerve function80-yo-woman with a left vasculopathic 3rd nerve palsy (minimal pupil involvement of about 1 mm relative mydriasis OS - other etiologies ruled out and resolved as expected over months). Although the inferior rectus is paretic, intact superior oblique muscle function can be demonstrated by asking the ...Image/MovingImage
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