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151 Papilledema 2013Discussion of papilledema, the swelling due to increased pressure.Text
152 Nutritional amblyopiaExample of patient with amblyopia with nutritional causes.Text
153 Glaucoma: the basicsGlaucoma is the most common optic neuropathy. Progressive cupping of the optic disc due to increased intraocular pressure together with visual field abnormalities and local disc susceptibility factors characterize this neuropathy. This PowerPoint lecture covers the basics of Glaucoma and includes ma...Text
154 Optic Disc pallor pseudo and realDiscussion of the causes of optic disc pallor.Text
155 MaculaOverview of the structure and viewing of the macula.Text
156 Cone DystrophyPPT covering Cone Dystrophy - An inherited degeneration that presents between 10 - 30 years of age. Symptoms are decreased visual acuity, poor color vision, and sometimes light sensitivity.Text
157 Stargardt's DiseaseDiscussion of Stargardt's disease, an inherited maculopathy which frequently presents with a loss of central vision.Text
158 Color Vision TestingDemonstration of color vision examination.Text
159 Stereoacuity TestingDemonstration of examination for stereoacuity.Text
160 Amsler Grid TestingDemonstration of Amsler Grid examination.Text
161 Optic Disc: Anatomy, Variants, Unusual discsdiscussion of viewing the optic disc. Includes development of direct ophthalmoscope. Covers normal optic disc and nerve fiber; nerve fiber loss and defects; cilioretinal arteries; venous anomolies; papilledema; pseudopapilledema; myopic disc; hyperoptic disc; little red discs; megallopapilla; myelin...Text
162 Normal optic discOverview of the structure and function of the normal optic disc.Text
163 How to Check the RAPD: RAPD Not PresentThis clip demonstrates the examination of the Relative Afferent Pupillary Defect (RAPD.) Demonstration of gauging the size of the pupil in light, testing light reflexes, swinging flashlight test for optic nerve abnormality.Image/MovingImage
164 Pupil ExamDemonstration of pupil examination.Text
165 Transillumination - Lisch nodulesDemonstration of transillumination of the Lisch nodules on a patient with neurofibromatosis. Shows how Lisch nodules that were not very visible in slit-lamp examination are better seen with transillumination, which may therefore be useful in detecting Lisch nodules earlier in children where they are...Image/MovingImage
166 Transillumination - Ciliary Body NeurofibromasExample of transillumination on a patient with neurofibromatosis, but without Lisch nodules. Shows suspected neurofibromas in the ciliary body.Image/MovingImage
167 Left-sided Horner's syndrome with an acquired preganglionic localizationLeft-sided Horner's syndrome in a 12-year-old girl with an acquired preganglionic localization based on clinical and pharmacologic testing. The cause remained undetermined after extensive radiologic investigations. Left-sided ptosis and miosis are evident in room light (top), and the degree of aniso...Image/StillImage
168 Structures of the irisStructures of the iris. The a indicates the anterior border layer that terminates at the pigmentary ruff of the pupillary border (b). The c indicates the iris sphincter muscle, which is oriented circumferentially within the stroma and located deep to the anterior border layer; d indicates vessels th...Image/StillImage
169 Anatomy of the pupillary light reflex pathwayAnatomy of the pupillary light reflex pathway. (Miller NR: Walsh And Hoyt's Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, p 421. Vol 2, 4th ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1985, with permission.)Image/StillImage
170 Location of pupillomotor fibersLocation of pupillomotor fibers are depicted as dark regions on cross-sections of the right (R) and left (L) oculomotor nerve at various locations along its course, including its emergence from the brain stem in the interpeduncular fossa (1), the midsubarachnoid segment (2), the level of the dorsum ...Image/StillImage
171 Anatomy of the oculosympathetic pathwayAnatomy of the oculosympathetic pathway. (Maloney WF, Younge BR, Moyer NJ: Evaluation of the causes and accuracy of pharmacologic localization in Horner's syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol 1980;90:394-402, Ophthalmic Publishing Company with permission.)Image/StillImage
172 The course of the postganglionic segment of the oculosympathetic fibers from the internal carotid arteryThe course of the postganglionic segment of the oculosympathetic fibers from the internal carotid artery (ICA) to the orbit is depicted as a dotted line. Note that they briefly join the abducens nerve (cranial nerve VI) before joining the nasociliary branch of the of the ophthalmic division of the t...Image/StillImage
173 The normal pupillary light reflexThe normal pupillary light reflex is initiated following exposure to light. After a brief latency, both the right (solid line) and left (broken line) pupil constrict, then undergo a small amount of redilation (escape), followed by oscillations (hippus) if the light is sustained. Hippus is not a path...Image/StillImage
174 Relationship between age and pupil sizeRelationship between age and pupil size, determined using an infrared flash photograph technique with subjects placed in darkness for 3 minutes. The numbers above the abscissa indicate the number of subjects tested in each age range. (Reprinted with permission of Loewenfeld IE: "Simple, central" ani...Image/StillImage
175 Pupillogram of a healthy young subjectPupillogram of a healthy young subject showing continuous pupillary oscillations of both pupils when light is sustained, indicated by the dark arrow at the top of the recording. Note that the oscillations of the pupils are synchronous and demonstrate variable amplitude and frequency. This pattern of...Image/StillImage
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