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151 Ocular MyastheniaExample of patient with myasthenia gravis. Demonstration of tensilon test. Patient shown to have bilateral ptosis, bilateral duction deficits, and left hypertropia. Discussion of techniques to observe subtle changes, such as bringing in a neutral observer or taking still photographs. Shows split-scr...Image/MovingImage
152 Ocular MyotoniaExample of patient with ocular myotonia. Patient is led through instructions for direction of gaze and opening and closing of eyes. Right eye is shown to be stuck in position after held gaze to the left and right, with very slow relaxation back into forward gaze.Image/MovingImage
153 Oculopalatal MyoclonusOculopalatal myoclonus (OPM) Rhythmic oscillations of eyes and palate. Occurred after specific brainstem injury from stroke, following stenting. Related PowerPoint Presentation: http://content.lib.utah.edu/u?/EHSL-Moran-Neuro-opth,129Image/MovingImage
154 Oculopalatal Myoclonus (PPT)Oculopalatal myoclonus (OPM) Rhythmic oscillations of eyes and palate. Occurred after specific brainstem injury from stroke, following stenting. Related Video: http://content.lib.utah.edu/u?/EHSL-Moran-Neuro-opth,128Image/MovingImage
155 OpsoclonusExample of patients with opsoclonus, a saccadic abnormality. Discussion of characteristics of opsoclonus, such as involuntary, rapid, brief, random, conjugate saccades. Discussion of possible causes, including brain stem encephalitis (as in first patient), a paraneoplastic effect, tumors, and drug t...Image/MovingImage
156 OpsoclonusExample of patients with opsoclonus, a saccadic abnormality.Image/MovingImage
157 Optic Disc pallor pseudo and realDiscussion of the causes of optic disc pallor.Text
158 Optic Disc: Anatomy, Variants, Unusual discsDiscussion of viewing the optic disc. Includes development of direct ophthalmoscope. Covers normal optic disc and nerve fiber; nerve fiber loss and defects; cilioretinal arteries; venous anomolies; papilledema; pseudopapilledema; myopic disc; hyperoptic disc; little red discs; megallopapilla; myelin...Text
159 Optic nerve tumors benign and malignantDiscussion of optic nerve tumors including meningioma and glioma.Text
160 The Orbital ExamComprehensive demonstration of the entire orbital examination.
161 Papilledema 2013Discussion of papilledema, the swelling due to increased pressure.Text
162 Paradoxical Constriction of Pupils to Darkness (Flynn Phenomenon)Example of patients both with and without paradoxical constriction of pupils. Observed in many congenital retinal disorders, such as achromatopsia, congenital stationary night-blindness, and Leber's congenital amaurosis. Sometimes seen in optic nerve disorders, such as dominant optic atrophy.Image/MovingImage
163 Parinaud's SyndromeTwo examples of patients with Parinaud's syndrome, a dorsal midbrain syndrome. Discussion of hallmarks of this syndrome, including convergence retraction nystagmus, vertical gaze palsies, light-near dissociation, and Collier's Sign. Discussion of age-dependent disorders associated with this syndrome...Image/MovingImage
164 Pathophysiology of signs associated with a tonic pupilPathophysiology of signs associated with a tonic pupil. Normally, all parasympathetic fibers of the third cranial nerve synapse in the ciliary ganglion (top). Most postganglionic fibers innervate the ciliary muscle (dashed lines). After injury to the ciliary ganglion, the pupil becomes denervated an...Image/StillImage
165 Periodic Alternating NystagmusExample of a patient with periodic alternating nystagmus, showing an alternation between left-beats and right-beats as the patient maintains forward gaze. Nystagmus maintain horizontal direction regardless of position of gaze.Image/MovingImage
166 Physiologic (End-Gaze) NystagmusDemonstration of physiological nystagmus, where oscillations do not represent pathology, but occur when the patient's gaze is drawn too far laterally.Image/MovingImage
167 Progressive Supranuclear PalsyExample of patient with progressive supranuclear palsy. Discussion of difference between saccadic movement in supranuclear palsy and nystagmus. Shows saccadic intrusions in forward gaze, pursuit, saccades, and doll's head maneuver.Image/MovingImage
168 Progressive Supranuclear PalsyProgressive Supranuclear PalsyImage/MovingImage
169 Pulsating ExophthalmosExample of a patient with neurofibromatosis with an absent sphenoid wing. Shows left eye pulsating back and forth with the pulse from front and side views.Image/MovingImage
170 Pupil ExamDemonstration of pupil examination.Text
171 Pupil signs in a 32-year-old woman with right-sided Adie's pupilPupil signs in a 32-year-old woman with right-sided Adie's pupil. The right pupil is larger than the left pupil (top), reacts poorly to direct light stimulation (second panel), and better in response to near stimulation (third panel). The right pupil also shows a supersensitive response 30 minutes a...Image/StillImage
172 Pupillogram demonstrating paradoxical pupillary constriction to darknessPupillogram demonstrating paradoxical pupillary constriction to darkness in four patients with congenital achromatopsia. Note that the pupils initially constrict when the light is extinguished. (Price MJ, Thompson HS, Judisch GF et al: Pupillary constriction to darkness. Br J Ophthalmol 1981;69:205-...Image/StillImage
173 Pupillogram of a healthy young subjectPupillogram of a healthy young subject showing continuous pupillary oscillations of both pupils when light is sustained, indicated by the dark arrow at the top of the recording. Note that the oscillations of the pupils are synchronous and demonstrate variable amplitude and frequency. This pattern of...Image/StillImage
174 RAPD PresentThis clip demonstrates the technique used to determine that Relative Afferent Pupillary Defect (RAPD) is present in a patient.Image/MovingImage
175 Rebound NystagmusExample of a patient with rebound nystagmus, where the oscillations alternate direction as the patient shifts gaze in different directions. Discussion of relationship to disease and disorders of the cerebellum, including degenerations of the cerebellum, infarction, and demyelination.Image/MovingImage
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