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151 Shapiro, Michael D.Divergence, convergence, and the ancestry of feral populations in the domestic rock pigeonStringham, Sydney A.; Mulroy, Elisabeth E.; Xing, Jinchuan; Record, David; Guernsey, Michael W.; Aldenhoven, Jaclyn T.; Osborne, Edward J.
152 Coley, Phyllis D.; Lokvam, John; Kursar, Thomas A.Divergent defensive strategies of young leaves in two species of IngaIn the recently radiated genus Inga (Fabaceae), few nucleotide substitutions have accumulated among species, yet large divergences have occurred in defensive phenotypes, suggesting strong selection by herbivores. We compared herbivory and defenses of young leaves for I. goldmanii, a more derived spe...Bioassays; Flavanoids; Heliothis virescens; Herbivory; Inga goldmanii; Inga umbellifera; Leaf development; Non-protein amino acids; Phoebis philea2005
153 Olivera, Baldomero M.DNA-topoisomerase modificationThe first reports of topoisomerase modification were published in 1982 and 1983 (Mills et al. 1982; Durban et al. 1983; Ferro et al. 1983; Jongstra-Bilen et al. 1983). Although a wide variety of posttranslational modifications of DNA topoisomerases may occur, this chapter focuses only on phosphoryl...Poly(ADP-ribosylation); Serine residues1990
154 Adler, Frederick R.Do rhinoviruses follow the neutral theory? The role of cross-immunity in maintaining the diversity of the common coldOver 100 serotypes of rhinoviruses, one of the primary causes of the common cold, co-circulate in the human population. This high diversity makes it effectively impossible to develop a vaccine, even for those at risk of complications due to asthma or cystic fibrosis.Serotypes; mutation rate; immunodominance2006
155 Clayton, Dale H.Does avian malaria reduce fledging success: an experimental test of the selection hypothesisLike many parasites, avian haematozoa are often found at lower infection intensities in older birds than young birds. One explanation, known as the "selection" hypothesis, is that infected young birds die before reaching adulthood, thus removing the highest infection intensities from the host popul...2013-01-01
156 Gesteland, Raymond F.; Atkins, John F.; Ingram, Jennifer A.; Kelly, Paul J.; Grentzmann, GuidoDual-luciferase reporter system for studying recoding signalsA new reporter system has been developed for measuring translation coupling efficiency of recoding mechanisms such as frameshifting or readthrough. A recoding test sequence is cloned in between the renilla and firefly luciferase reporter genes and the two luciferase activities are subsequently measu...Amino Acid Sequence; Genes, Reporter; HIV; Antizyme; Translation1998
157 Capecchi, Mario R.Duplication of the Hoxd11 gene causes alterations in the axial and appendicular skeleton of the mouse.The Hox genes encode a group of transcription factors essential for proper development of the mouse. Targeted mutation of the Hoxd11 gene causes reduced male fertility, vertebral transformation, carpal bone fusions, and reductions in digit length. A duplication of the Hoxd11 gene was created with th...Animals; Bone Development; Forelimb; Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental2002-09-01
158 Goller, FranzDynamical origin of spectrally rich vocalizations in birdsongBirdsong is a model system for learned vocal behavior with remarkable parallels to human vocal development and sound production mechanisms. Upper vocal tract filtering plays an important role in human speech, and its importance has recently also been recognized in birdsong. However, the mechanisms...Taeniopygia guttata; Labial oscillations; SNILC bifurcation2008-07
159 Hultine, KevinEcohydrologic significance of hydraulic redistribution in a semiarid savannaRecent studies have illuminated the process of hydraulic redistribution, defined as the translocation of soil moisture via plant root systems, but the long-term ecohydrologic significance of this process is poorly understood. Copyright [year] American Geophysical Union. Reproduced by permission...Moisture; Roots; Water2008
160 Hultine, KevinEcohydrological implications of woody plant encroachmentIncreases in the abundance or density of woody plants in historically semiarid and arid grassland ecosystems have important ecological, hydrological, and socioeconomic implications. Using a simplified water-balance model, we propose a framework for conceptualizing how woody plant encroachment is li...Carbon cycling; ecohydrology; evapotranspiration2005
161 Ehleringer, James R.; Bush, Sarah Elizabeth; Solomon, Douglas KipEcohydrology in a Colorado River riparian forest: implications for the decline of Populus fremontiiPopulus fremontii (Fremont cottonwood) was once a dominant species in desert riparian forests but has been increasingly replaced by the exotic invasive Tamarix ramosissima (saltcedar). Interspecific competition, reduced flooding frequency, and increased salinity have been implicated in the widespre...Populus fremontii; Decline; Colorado River; Utah; Invasive species; Riparian; Salinity; Sap flow; Tamarix ramosissima; Transpiration2005
162 Clayton, Dale H.Ecoimmunity in Darwin's finches: invasive parasites trigger acquired immunity in the medium ground finch (Geospiza fortis)Invasive parasites pose a serious threat to native animal populations, because hosts with no history of exposure may lack effective immune defenses. Invasive parasites are a particular threat to small, island populations [1,2]. For example, introduced malaria (Plasmodium relictum) has exacerbated t...Darwins finches; Ecoimmunity; Acquired immunity; Medium ground finch; Geospiza fortis; Invasive parasites; Novel parasites; Poxvirus avium; Nest flies; Philornis downsi2010-01-06
163 Clayton, Dale H.Ecological basis of coevolutionary historyMacroevolutionary patterns are difficult to interpret because they are the product of a time scale so vast that deterministic and chance events are hard to distinguish. Although the macroevolutionary history of a group can be reconstructed from extant species, determining the ecological context in ...2003
164 Bowling, David R.Ecological processes dominate the 13C land disequilibrium in a Rocky Mountain subalpine forestFossil fuel combustion has increased atmospheric CO2 by ≈ 115 μmol mol1 since 1750 and decreased its carbon isotope composition (δ13C) by 1.7-2‰(the 13C Suess effect). Because carbon is stored in the terrestrial biosphere for decades and longer, the δ13C of CO2 released by terrestrial ecosyst...2014-01-01
165 Davidson, Diane W.Ecological studies of neotropical ant-gardensIn a census taken in Peru's Manu National Park, 10 epiphytic angiosperms from seven plant families established principally on arboreal carton-ant nests. These "ant gardens" (AGs) were most often inhabited by parabiotic ants, Camponotus femoratus and Crematogaster cf. limata parabiotica, whose polygy...Ant competition; Ant garden; Ant-plant interaction; Coadaptation; Epiphyte; Mutualism; Parabiosis; Preadaptation; Peru; Seed dispersal; Tropical rainforest1988
166 Ehleringer, James R.; Bush, Sarah ElizabethEcophysiology of riparian cottonwood and willow before, during, and after two years of soil water removalRiparian cottonwood/willow forest assemblages are highly valued in the southwestern United States for their wildlife habitat, biodiversity, and watershed protection. Yet these forests are under considerable threat from climate change impacts on water resources and land-use activities to support hum...Riparian cottonwood; Riparian willow; Soil water removal; Coyote willow; Drought recovery; Populus fremontii; Riparian ecology; Red Butte Canyon Research Natural Area; Salix exigua; Stem sap flux; Leaf carbon isotope ratios2010
167 Ehleringer, James R.Ecosystem physiology responses to global changeMost ecosystems exposed to double ambient C02 show higher peak season net carbon uptake than those growing at current-ambient C02. For grasslands, above-ground biomass increased by an average of 14%, although individual responses for a given system and year range from negative to +85%. The wide ran...Global change ; Ecosystem physiology; Carbon budget; Temperature; Water availability; Nitrogen deposition; Ozone1999
168 Adler, Frederick R.Effect of 1918 PB1-F2 expression on influenza A virus infection kineticsRelatively little is known about the viral factors contributing to the lethality of the 1918 pandemic, although its unparalleled virulence was likely due in part to the newly discovered PB1-F2 protein. This protein, while unnecessary for replication, increases apoptosis in monocytes, alters viral po...2011
169 Adler, Frederick R.Effect of 1918 PB1-F2 expression on influenza A virus infection kineticsAbstract Relatively little is known about the viral factors contributing to the lethality of the 1918 pandemic, although its unparalleled virulence was likely due in part to the newly discovered PB1-F2 protein. This protein, while unnecessary for replication, increases apoptosis in monocytes, alter...2011
170 Hughes, Kelly T.The effect of cell growth phase on the regulatory cross-talk between flagellar and Spi1 virulence gene expressionThe flagellar regulon controls Salmonella biofilm formation, virulence gene expression and the production of the major surface antigen present on the cell surface: flagellin. At the top of a flagellar regulatory hierarchy is the master operon, flhDC, which encodes the FlhD4C2 transcriptional complex...2014-01-01
171 Hultine, Kevin; Bush, Sarah Elizabeth; Ehleringer, James R.Effect of gender on sap-flux-scaled transpiration in a dominant riparian tree species: Box elder (Acer negundo)Acer negundo is a dioecious riparian tree species with a spatial segregation of the sexes along soil moisture gradients. Females are typically more common in wet sites along streams (typically F/M = 1.6), whereas males are more common in drier sites away from streams (typically F/M = 0.6). Spatial s...Density; Ecosystem; Segregation2007
172 Sekercioglu, CaganThe effects of climate change on tropical birdsBirds are among the most widely studied organisms on earth and represent an important indicator group for learning about the effects of climate change - particularly in regard to the effects of climate change on tropical ecosystems. In this review, we assess the potential impacts of climate change o...2010-01-01
173 Hughes, Kelly T.The effects of codon context on in vivo translation speedWe developed a bacterial genetic system based on translation of the his operon leader peptide gene to determine the relative speed at which the ribosome reads single or multiple codons in vivo. Low frequency effects of so-called ‘‘silent'' codon changes and codon neighbor (context) effects could...2014-01-01
174 Adler, Frederick R.Effects of intraspecific density-dependence on species richness and species abundance distributionsAbstract Species richness and patterns of abundance result from the interplay between niche differences, realized as intraspecific density-dependence (IDD), and so-called neutral processes that arise when species fitnesses are similar. This paper presents an extension of neutral models that incorpo...2010
175 Davidson, Diane W.Effects of trenching on growth and survival of planted Shorea parvifolia seedlings under pioneer stands in a logged-over forestEffects of trenching on growth and survival of planted Shorea parvifolia seedlings under pioneer stands in a logged-over forest. We conducted an experiment to determine the value of trenching in reducing potentially negative effects of root competition on growth of Shorea parvifolia seedlings plant...Shorea parvifolia; Trenching; Dipterocarp seedlings; Enrichment planting; Pioneer stands; Root competition; Soil compaction; Sabah1998
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