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76 Idiopathic downbeat nystagmus exacerbated with positional maneuversThis is a 45-yo-woman with vertical oscillopsia for 6+ months, found to have downbeat nystagmus on examination. She mainly complained of dizziness and oscillopsia when laying down. She was found to have a significant exacerbation in her baseline downbeat nystagmus with straight head hanging, and in ...Downbeat nystagmus, Jerk nystagmus, Central positional nystagmus
77 Idiopathic downbeat nystagmus exacerbated with positional maneuvers - Part 2: patient is now on 4-aminopyridineThis is a 45-yo-woman presented in "Idiopathic downbeat nystagmus exacerbated with positional maneuvers". This video was taken after the patient had been on 4-aminopyridine for 3 months. There was marked improvement in subjective oscillopsia and objective downbeat nystagmus. The strong positional co...Downbeat nystagmus, Jerk nystagmus, Central positional nystagmus
78 Idiopathic downbeat nystagmus, decreasing with convergenceThis is a 25-yo-woman who experienced vertically oscillopsia for 1 year, and was found to have downbeat nystagmus. Interestingly, there were no other cerebellar ocular motor signs - e.g., normal saccades, smooth pursuit, VOR suppression, and no gaze-evoked nystagmus, although her (pure) downbeat was...Convergence-Abnormal, Cerebellar Pathology, Downbeat nystagmus, Jerk nystagmus
79 Impaired smooth pursuit and other characteristic ocular motor findings in middle cerebellar peduncle strokeThis is a 50-year-old woman who underwent resection of a left-sided acoustic neuroma, and post-operatively, she had vertigo, binocular diplopia, left hemi-ataxia and severe gait ataxia. MR diffusion weighted imaging demonstrated an acute stroke involving the left middle cerebellar peduncle (MCP) and...Abnormal Pursuit, VOR-HIT Abnormal, Abnormal Alignment, Vestibulocochlear Nerve, OMS Pons, Jerk Nystagmus, Gaze-Evoked Nystagmus, Bruns Nystagmus, Vestibular Nystagmus, Acute Vestibular Syndrome
80 Inferior oblique overaction in a congenital 4th nerve palsy60-yo-man complaining of intermittent oblique diplopia. There was a left hypertropia that worsened in down gaze, right gaze and in left head tilt. There was a large vertical fusional amplitude in addition to a longstanding rightward head tilt, and on examination there was left inferior oblique overa...Fourth (Trochlear) Nerve Palsy
81 Isolated central 4th nerve palsyThis is a 40-year-old man with a right hypertropia that worsened in left and down gaze in addition to right head tilt, and improved in left head tilt. There was subjective excyclotorsion OD with double Maddox rod testing. This was consistent with a right 4th nerve palsy. He had a known left midbrain...Fourth Nerve Palsy, OMS Midbrain
82 Latent nystagmus and DVD in infantile esotropiaThis is a 20-year-old woman with infantile esotropia (s/p strabismus surgery as a child) who demonstrated latent nystagmus and presumed dissociated vertical deviation (DVD) OS, which are commonly seen with infantile esotropia (also inferior oblique overaction and monocular nasotemporal asymmetry to ...Alignment abnormal; Jerk nystagmus; Latent nystagmus
83 Lateral pontine stroke involving the superior vestibular nucleus causing spontaneous upbeat-torsional nystagmusA 65-year-old man presented to the emergency department with spontaneous vertigo and unsteadiness, and had was noted to have spontaneous upbeat nystagmus (UBN), also with a torsional component (top poles beating toward the right ear) that was most noticeable in right and up gaze. General neurologic ...Jerk Nystagmus; Upbeat Nystagmus; Torsional Nystagmus; Pons; Acute Vestibular Syndrome
84 Leukemic leptomeningeal carcinomatosis causing 4th and 6th nerve palsiesThis is a 55-yo-man with CML that recurred as AML. Diagonal diplopia developed, and on examination he was found to have a partial right 6th nerve palsy, in addition to a left hypertropia that increased in right gaze, down gaze, and in left head tilt consistent with a left 4th nerve palsy. There was ...Abnormal Range, Fourth Nerve Palsy, Sixth Nerve Palsy
85 Maddox Rod and Red Glass TestingStrabismus basicsStrabismus, Alignment Normal, Alignment Abnormal
86 Measuring Divergence AmplitudeDivergence insufficiency should be suspected in patients with binocular horizontal diplopia at distance (but not near) who lack abduction deficits. There should be an esodeviation greater at distance, and in older patients with levator dehiscence (or previous ptosis surgery) and prominent superior s...Insufficient Divergence
87 Medial longitudinal fasciculus syndrome with prominent spontaneous nystagmusThis is a 60-year-old man who experienced the abrupt onset of diplopia and imbalance. He had typical features of a left medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) syndrome including left internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO) and left hypertropia from skew deviation, but he also had very prominent upbeat-tors...INO, Jerk Nystagmus, Upbeat Nystagmus, Rotary Nystagmus, Skew Deviation, OMS Pons, Abnormal Alignment, Abducting Nystagmus
88 Medial medullary syndromesThis is a video of two patients who suffered small strokes involving the right medial medulla, and who presented with acute vertigo and oscillopsia. The first patient in the video had pure upbeat nystagmus, while the second patient had upbeat-torsional (towards the right ear) nystagmus in addition t...Medulla; Jerk Nystagmus; Upbeat Nystagmus; Gaze Evoked Nystagmus; Vestibular Nystagmus; Acute Vestibular
89 Medullary structures relevant to the ocular motor and vestibular consequences of lateral medullary (Wallenberg) syndromeThis is an axial section of the medulla showing the structures that, when damaged, are responsible for the vestibular and ocular motor features of the lateral medullary or Wallenberg syndrome. The nucleus prepositus hypoglossi (NPH) and medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) complex is important for horizo...Medulla OMS; figures
90 Medullary structures relevant to upbeat nystagmusThis is an axial section of the medulla, slightly more caudal as compared to (please refer to figure "medullary structures relevant to the ocular motor and vestibular consequences of the lateral medullary (Wallenberg) syndrome). Again seen are the inferior cerebellar peduncle (ICP) and caudal aspect...Medulla OMS; figures
91 Mesodiencephalic stroke causing unilateral riMLF and INC ocular motor syndromesThis is a 65-year-old man who experienced the sudden onset of diplopia (with horizontal and vertical components), dysarthria and imbalance. An MRI performed the following day showed a left mesodiencephalic stroke. The patient was seen in clinic 10 days later (when the video was taken), and by that t...Abnormal Saccades, Abnormal Alignment, Mesencephalon, Jerk Nystagmus, Torsional Nystagmus
92 Mild 6th nerve palsy due to pontine strokeThis is a 70-year-old woman with HTN and diabetes who presented with horizontal diplopia for several weeks, worse in right gaze. There was a very subtle abduction paresis OD with full motility elsewhere. With cover-uncover testing, there was a small esotropia in right gaze (esodeviation seen with al...Abnormal Alignment, Abnormal Range, Sixth Nerve Palsy
93 Miller Fisher Syndrome - Ophthalmoplegia and HyperreflexiaThis is a 45-yo-woman who presented with mild imbalance and diplopia. There had been a preceding viral illness several weeks prior. Examination demonstrated horizontal gaze paresis (sparing unilateral adduction), mild gait ataxia (no clear appendicular ataxia), and hyperreflexia. Pupils were sluggis...Range of eye movements/motility abnormal; Horizontal gaze palsy; Miller Fisher Syndrome
94 Miller Fisher Syndrome - Ophthalmoplegia, Ptosis and AtaxiaThis is a young man who presented with ptosis, difficulty moving the eyes and gait imbalance several weeks after a GI illness. Miller Fisher syndrome was diagnosed, IVIG therapy was initiated, and anti-Gq1b antibodies came back extremely elevated. In addition to ophthalmoplegia, and ataxia, hyporefl...Range of eye movements/motility abnormal; Miller Fisher Syndrome
95 Monocular downbeat nystagmus due to a posterior fossa cystThis is a 40-yo-man who experienced months of imbalance and was found to have an epidermoid cyst (immediately posterior to the 4th ventricle), which was resected. Months after surgery, he experienced monocular vertical oscillopsia. On examination, there was subtle downbeat nystagmus (DBN) in the rig...Downbeat Nystagmus, Jerk Nystagmus, Gaze Evoked Nystagmus, Abnormal Saccades
96 Monocular horizontal pendular nystagmus in MSBoth of these patients have MS and monocular (OS) horizontal pendular nystagmus. The first patient seen in the video has normal afferent function and no evidence of optic nerve disease in either eye, while the second patient has severe OS>>OD optic nerve disease related to bouts of optic neuritis (t...Pendular Nystagmus
97 Multiple cranial neuropathies due to glomus tumorThis is a woman who was diagnosed with a right sided glomus tumor, and subsequently underwent resection. Seen here are multiple cranial neuropathies related to the tumor itself as well as to the surgery. She cannot abduct the right eye due to a right CN VI palsy. She has a right lower motor neuron f...Sixth Nerve Palsy, Facial Nerve, Glossopharyngeal Nerve, Vagus Nerve, Hypoglossal Nerve
98 Multiple lower cranial neuropathies following carotid endarterectomyThis is a patient who underwent a right carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Following the surgery, multiple right sided lower cranial nerves were involved. In his case, there was trapezius and sternocleidomastoid weakness and atrophy on the right, indicative of right CN XI injury. There was an absent gag ...Glossopharyngeal Nerve, Hypoglossal Nerve, Vagus Nerve, Accessory Nerve
99 Neuro-ophthalmic features and pseudo-MG lid signs in Miller Fisher syndromeThis is a 51-year-old woman who presented with imbalance, acute onset dizziness and diplopia that developed over three days following two weeks of upper respiratory infection and bacterial conjunctivitis. When she was initially seen as an outpatient, nystagmus was noted to the right and left, and a ...Abnormal VOR, Miller Fisher Syndrome, Myasthenia Gravis, Acute Vestibular Syndrome, Jerk Nystagmus, Gaze Evoked Nystagmus
100 Neuro-ophthalmic features and pseudo-MG lid signs in Miller Fisher syndrome - Figure 1This is a 51-year-old woman who presented with imbalance, acute onset dizziness and diplopia that developed over three days following two weeks of upper respiratory infection and bacterial conjunctivitis. When she was initially seen as an outpatient, nystagmus was noted to the right and left, and a ...Abnormal VOR, Miller Fisher Syndrome, Myasthenia Gravis, Acute Vestibular Syndrome, Jerk Nystagmus, Gaze Evoked Nystagmus
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