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76 When natural selection favors imitation of parentsIt is commonly assumed that parents are important sources of socially learned behavior and beliefs. However, the empirical evidence that parents are cultural models is ambiguous, and debates continue over their importance. A formal theory that examines the evolution of psychological tendencies to i...Transmission; Evolution; Culture2008
77 Culture creates genetic structure in the Caucasus: autosomal, mitochondrial, and Y-chromosomal variation in DaghestanNear the junction of three major continents, the Caucasus region has been an important thoroughfare for human migration. While the Caucasus Mountains have diverted human traffic to the few lowland regions that provide a gateway from north to south between the Caspian and Black Seas, highland populat...Caucasus; Haplogroups; Autosomal variation; Mitochondrial variation; Y-chromosomal variation; Endogamy; Avar; Dargin; Kubachi; Culture2008
78 Terminal Pleistocene fish remains from Homestead Cave, Utah, and implications for fish biogeography in the Bonneville BasinEleven fish species were identified from Homestead Cave, Utah. The remains, concentrated in the lowest stratum of the deposit, were accumulated by owls between approximately 11,200 and 10,100 14C yr B.P. and likely represent fish associated with the final die-off of the Lake Bonneville fauna. Fou...Fish assemblage; Quaternary; Lake Bonneville2000
79 Ascertainment bias for non-twin relatives in twin proband studiesWhen families are ascertained through affected twins, as for example when twin probands are selected from a registry and their non-twin relatives studied, a correction for ascertainment bias is needed. It is shown that probandwise counting (where relatives of doubly ascertained twin pairs are counte...Genetic; Transmission; Models1982
80 Unangan past and present: the contrasts between observed and inferred historiesAbstract Academic research focusing on the population and culture history of the Aleut (Unangan) people began in the late 19th century and continues to the present. The papers in this special issue of Human Biology summarize the latest results from archaeological, linguistic, genetic, and morphometr...2010
81 Hunting and nuclear families: some lessons from the Hadza about men's workHadza hunter-gatherers display economic and social features usually assumed to indicate the dependence of wives and children on provisioning husbands and fathers. The wives and children of better Hadza hunters have been found to be better-nourished, consistent with the assumption that men hunt to pr...Subsistence economy; Tindiga, African people; Subsistence hunting2001-10-24
82 Relatedness and kin-structured migration in a founding population: Plymouth colony, 1620-1633To test the common assumption of no genetic relationship in a founding population, we calculated average relatedness (r) for the emigrants to Plymouth Colony from Europe on seven voyages from 1620 to 1633. Of 355 individuals, 255 could be individually identified and 4 generations of genealogic depth...1991
83 Why hunter-gatherers work: An ancient version of the problem of public goodsFrom the abstract: People who hunt and gather for a living share some resources more widely than others. A favored hypothesis to explain the differential sharing is that giving up portions of large, unpredictable resources obligates others to return shares of them later, reducing everyone's variance...Hunter-gatherer societies; Public goods2001-08
84 Food sharing among Ache hunter-gatherers of Eastern ParaguayEmpirical research on food sharing among hunter-gatherers should provide critical data for evaluating both the possible role of food sharing in hominid evolution and the question of how such behavior could be selected.Hunter-gatherers; Ache; Paraguay; Anthropology1988-02
85 Hrdlič̌ka's Aleutian population-replacement hypothesis: a radiometric evaluationIn a 1945 monograph, Hrdlička argued that, at 1,000 BP, Paleo-Aleut people on Umnak Island were replaced by Neo-Aleut groups moving west along the island chain. His argument was based on cranial measurements of skeletal remains from Chaluka Midden and mummified remains from Kagamil and Ship Rock b...Population replacement; Paleo-Aleuts; Neo-Aleuts2006
86 Refutation of the general single locus model for the etiology of schizophreniaAll published studies on the familial incidence of schizophrenia appropriate for testing the applicability of the general single-locus two-allele model are examined under the assumption of a unitary etiology for all schizophrenia. We show that the single major locus model is inadequate to predict th...Genetics; Diseases in Twins; Chromosome Mapping1982
87 Doubts about isonymyThe method of isonymy, developed by Crow and Mange for estimating inbreeding from surname frequencies, requires an assumption that has not been appreciated: It is necessary to assume that all males in some ancestral generation, the founding stock, had unique surnames. Because this assumption is sel...1991
88 Migration and genetic drift in human populationsIn humans and many other species, mortality is concentrated early in the life cycle, and is low during the ages of dispersal and reproduction. Yet precisely the opposite is assumed by classical population-genetics models of migration and genetic drift. We introduce a model in which population regul...Frequencies; Variance; Dynamics1986
89 Ascertainment bias in estimates of average heterozygosityPopulation geneticists work with a nonrandom sample of the human genome. Conventional practice ensures that unusually variable loci are most likely to be discovered and thus included in the sample of loci. Consequently, estimates of average heterozygosity are biased upward. In what follows we descri...Bias (Epidemiology); Biometry; Heterozygote1996-05
90 On emergency decisions, egalitarianism, and group selectionBoehm (CA 37:763-93) puts forward an important thesis-that with the evolution of egalitarian societies, privileged routes to reproductive advantage are blocked and the power of individua selection severely compromised. With competition so constrained, altruistic behavior can more readily spread i...Boehm's mode; Evolution of altruistic behavior1998-06
91 How women competeMen are more physically aggressive and more risk-prone than women, but are not necessarily more competitive. New data show the gender difference in competitiveness to be one of kind rather than degree, with women and men competing in different ways and, to some extent, over different objectives, but...Gender differences, behavior; Competition; Aggression1999-06
92 Genetic structure of the Utah Mormons: comparison of results based on RFLPs, blood groups, migration matrices, isonymy, and pedigreesThe genetic structure of the Utah Mormon population is examined using 25 blood group and 47 RFLP alleles obtained from 442 subjects living in 8 geographic subdivisions. Nei's Gst was 0.013 (p < 0.002) for the RFLP data and 0.012 (p > 0.4) for the blood group data, showing that only 1% of the geneti...1994
93 Waist-to hip ratio across cultures: trade-offs between androgen-and estrogen-dependent traitsA gynoid pattern of fat distribution, with small waist and large hips (low waist-to-hip ratio, or WHR) holds significant fitness benefits for women: women with a low WHR of about 0.7 are more fecund, are less prone to chronic disease, and (in most cultures) are considered more attractive. Why, then...Fertility; Optimum; Fecundity2008
94 In search of homo economicus: behavioral experiments in 15 small scale societiesRecent investigations have uncovered large, consistent deviations from the predictions of the textbook representation of Homo economicus One problem appears to lie in economists' canonical assumption that individuals are entirely self-interested: in addition to their own material payoffs, many exper...Economic behavior; Self-interest; Fairness; Reciprocity2001
95 Size of the bursa of fabricius in relation to gonad size and age in laysan and black-footed albatrossesAge determination can be difficult for birds that undergo little or no plumage change during life. This is the case for Laysan and Black-footed Albatrosses (Diomedea immutabilis and D. nigripes). The juvenile plumage for both these North Pacific albatrosses is completely grown by about five to six m...Birds; Species; Development1994
96 Pristine benchmarks and indigenous conservation? Implications from California zooarchaeologyThe superabundance of tame wildlife during the early historic period in California astonished European explorers. And the historic accounts of incredible animal densities, most notably artiodactyls, have influenced a long-held perception that California Indians lived in harmony with nature. However,...2004-01-01
97 Alternative aboriginal economies: Martu livelihoods in the 21st centuryIn the western deserts of Australia, hunting and gathering endures as an important social and economic activity. That foraging persists within the boundaries of developed industrialized nation states may come as a surprise to those who evaluate foraging as less profitable than agricultural, wage or ...Aboriginal economics; Aboriginal foraging2015
98 Conservation or co-evolution? Intermediate levels of aboriginal burning and hunting have positive effects on kangaroo populations in Western AustraliaStudies of conservation in small scale societies typically portray indigenous peoples as either sustainably managing resources, or forsaking long-term sustainability for short-term gains. To explain this variability, we propose an alternative framework derived from a co-evolutionary perspective. In ...2014-01-01
99 On life history evolution (a comment on Chisholm)Chisholm (CA 34:I-24) is right that the theory, models, and data of evolutionary biology apply to questions asked by social scientists. Work in life-history theory (Stearns 1992, Roff 1992, Charnov 1993) has especially provocative implications for the understanding of human development (see review i...1994-01-01
100 On optimal foraging models and subsistence transitionsLayton, Foley, and Williams are right: "progress" doesn't explain transitions from hunting and gathering to agriculture, by theory and models from behavioral ecology might.1992-01-01
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