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76 Capecchi, Mario R.Gene targeting: tapping the cellular telephone.Gene targeting means that we now have the potential to generate mice of virtually any desired genotype. In the first instance, standards recombinant DNA technology is used to alter a cloned DNA sequence of a chosen locus; the modified potent stem cell derived from a mouse embryo, and homologous reco...Animals; Blotting, Southern; Bone and Bones; Gene Targeting; Genotype; Immunochemistry; In Situ Hybridization; Mice1990-03-08
77 Capecchi, Mario R.Genetic interaction between hoxb-5 and hoxb-6 is revealed by nonallelic noncomplementation.hoxb-5 and hoxb-6 are adjacent genes in the mouse HoxB locus and are members of the homeotic transcription factor complex that governs establishment of the mammalian body plan. To determine the roles of these genes during development, we generated mice with a targeted disruption in each gene. Three ...Alleles; CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins; Cervical Vertebrae; DNA-Binding Proteins; Forelimb; Genetic Complementation Test1995-01-01
78 Capecchi, Mario R.Absence of radius and ulna in mice lacking hoxa-11 and hoxd-11.Mice with targeted disruptions in Hox genes have been generated to evaluate the role of the Hox complex in determining the mammalian body plan. This complex of 38 genes encodes transcription factors that specify regional information along the embryonic axes. Early in vertebrate evolution an ancestra...Alleles; Animals; Bone and Bones; Carpal Bones2003-09-02
79 Gesteland, Raymond F.; Atkins, John F.; Baranov, Pavel V.Diverse bacterial genomes encode an operon of two genes, one of which is an unusual class-I release factor that potentially recognizes atypical mRNA signals other than normal stop codonsABSTRACT: Background: While all codons that specify amino acids are universally recognized by tRNA molecules, codons signaling termination of translation are recognized by proteins known as class-I release factors (RF). In most eukaryotes and archaea a single RF accomplishes termination at all three...Class-I release factors; RF1; RF2; Bacterial genomes2006
80 Thomas, Kirk R.; Capecchi, Mario R.Location of crossovers during gene targeting with insertion and replacement vectors.Gene targeting was used to introduce nonselectable genetic changes into chromosomal loci in mouse embryo-derived stem cells. The nonselectable markers were linked to a selectable marker in both insertion- and replacement-type vectors, and the transfer of the two elements to the Hprt locus was assaye...Genetic Vectors; Molecular Sequence Data; Restriction Mapping1993-04
81 Capecchi, Mario R.Altered enzymes in drug-resistant variants of mammalian tissue culture cells.Two selective procedures are compared in an effort to isolate variants of mouse L cells containing structural gene mutations. Among the resulting variant cloned cell lines are found two types of alterations in theenzyme hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (EC (1): enzyme with altered ...Drug Resistance; Azaguanine; Clone Cells; Hypoxanthines1973-11
82 Capecchi, Mario R.Duplication of the Hoxd11 gene causes alterations in the axial and appendicular skeleton of the mouse.The Hox genes encode a group of transcription factors essential for proper development of the mouse. Targeted mutation of the Hoxd11 gene causes reduced male fertility, vertebral transformation, carpal bone fusions, and reductions in digit length. A duplication of the Hoxd11 gene was created with th...Animals; Bone Development; Forelimb; Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental2002-09-01
83 Capecchi, Mario R.Establishment of mammalian cell lines containing multiple nonsense mutations and functional suppressor tRNA genes.We describe the generation of mammalian cell lines carrying amber suppressor genes. Nonsense mutants in the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV tk) gene, the Escherichia coli xanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (Eco-gpt) gene and the aminoglycoside 3' phosphotransferase gene of the Tn...Cercopithecus aethiops; Escherichia coli; Xenopus1982-11-30
84 Gesteland, Raymond F.Pattern of protein synthesis in monkey cells infected by simian virus 40After infection of several permanent monkey cell lines by simian virus 40 (SV40), four additional protein bands can be detected by simple sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of whole-cell extracts. These bands appear only after the onset of viral deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) syn...Monkeys; Simian virus 40; Peptides; DNA, Viral/biosynthesis1972
85 Capecchi, Mario R.Characterization of three proteins involved in polypeptide chain termination.At each stage of elongation, the growing polypeptide chain is bound to the ribosome-messenger RNA complex through the transfer RNA of the most recently incorporated amino acid residue. When the chain is complete, the last polypeptide-transfer RNA (tuna) ester linkage is cleaved, releasing the chain ...Anti-Bacterial Agents; Phenylalanine; Stimulation, Chemical1969
86 Thomas, Kirk R.; Capecchi, Mario R.High-fidelity gene targeting in embryonic stem cells by using sequence replacement vectors.Mutations were targeted to the Hprt locus in murine embryonic stem cells by using sequence replacement vectors. When the vector was designed such that the mutated sequences were flanked on both sides by several kilobases of DNA homologous to the target locus, replacement of chromosomal sequences wit...Drug Resistance; Gene Rearrangement; Gentamicins1992-07
87 Capecchi, Mario R.Expression of a microinjected porcine class I major histocompatibility complex gene in transgenic mice.A porcine class I major histocompatibility complex (SLA) gene has been introduced into the genome of a C57BL/10 mouse. This transgenic mouse expressed SLA antigen on its cell surfaces and transmitted the gene to offspring, in which the gene is also expressed. Skin grafts of such transgenic mice were...Genetic Engineering; Graft Rejection; Mice, Inbred C57BL1985-05-03
88 Capecchi, Mario R.; Tvrdik, PetrHoxb1 functions in both motoneurons and in tissues of the periphery to establish and maintain the proper neuronal circuitry.Formation of neuronal circuits in the head requires the coordinated development of neurons within the central nervous system (CNS) and neural crest-derived peripheral target tissues. Hoxb1, which is expressed throughout rhombomere 4 (r4), has been shown to be required for the specification of facial...Rhombomere 4; Branchiomotor; Cranial Nerve2004-07-04
89 Capecchi, Mario R.Hox10 and Hox11 genes are required to globally pattern the mammalian skeleton.Mice in which all members of the Hox10 or Hox11 paralogous group are disrupted provide evidence that these Hox genes are involved in global patterning of the axial and appendicular skeleton. In the absence of Hox10 function, no lumbar vertebrae are formed. Instead, ribs project from all posterior ve...Alleles; Animals; Forelimb; Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental; Hindlimb2003-07-18
90 Gesteland, Raymond F.; Baranov, Pavel V.; Atkins, John F.Expression levels influence ribosomal frameshifting at the tandem rare arginine codons AGG_AGG and AGA_AGA in Escherichia coliABSTRACT: The rare codons AGG and AGA comprise 2% and 4%, respectively, of the arginine codons of Escherichia coli K-12, and their cognate tRNAs are sparse. At tandem occurrences of either rare codon, the paucity of cognate aminoacyl tRNAs for the second codon of the pair facilitates peptidyl-tRNA...Gene expression; Frameshifting; E. coli; Arginine codons2005
91 Gesteland, Raymond F.; Krapcho, Karen J.; Talbot, Phil; Thulin, CraigCrystallization of the MS2 translational repressor alone and complexed to bromouridineThe coat protein from the MS2 bacteriophage plays a dual role by encapsidating viral RNA and also by binding RNA as a translational repressor. In order to study the isolated dimer in a conformation not influenced by capsid interactions, a mutant molecule was crystallized that is defective in capsid ...Crystallization; RNA Bacteriophage; RNA Hairpin; Translational Repressor1995
92 Capecchi, Mario R.Housekeeping gene xanthine oxidoreductase is necessary for milk fat droplet enveloping and secretion: gene sharing in the lactating mammary gland.Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) is the rate-limiting enzyme in purine catabolism occurring in most cell types. However, this housekeeping gene is expressed at very high levels in a number of mammalian tissues including the lactating mammary epithelium, suggesting additional roles for XOR in these tiss...Body Weight; Cell Differentiation; Cell Membrane; Epithelium2002-12-15
93 Gesteland, Raymond F.Characterization of lysozyme messenger and lysozyme synthesized in vitroIn vitro systems for protein systhesis have been in wide use for about 10 years. In most of the early work protein synthesis was measured by following the incorporation of radioactive amino acids into acid precipitable material. This test cannot distinguish between the synthesis of complete, activ...Lysozyme Messenger; Lysozyme Synthesized; Protein Synthesis1969
94 Gesteland, Raymond F.; Atkins, John F.; Wills, Norma M.rRNA-mRNA base pairing stimulates a programmed -1 ribosomal frameshiftBase pairing between the 3' end of 16S rRNA and mRNA is shown to be important for the programmed -1 frameshifting utilized in decoding the Escherichia coli dnaX gene. This pairing is the same as the Shine-Dalgarno pairing used by prokaryotic ribosomes in selection of translation initiators, but for ...Frameshifting; Escherichia coli; Binding Sites; Base Composition1994
95 Jorde, Lynn B.Clinical and biochemical function of polymorphic NR0B1 GGAA-microsatellites in Ewing sarcoma: A report from the Childrens Oncology GroupBackground: The genetics involved in Ewing sarcoma susceptibility and prognosis are poorly understood. EWS/FLI and related EWS/ETS chimeras upregulate numerous gene targets via promoter-based GGAA-microsatellite response elements. These microsatellites are highly polymorphic in humans, and prelimina...2014-01-01
96 Capecchi, Mario R.Detection of targeted GFP-Hox gene fuogenesissions during mouse embry.The ability to use a vital cell marker to study mouse embryogenesis will open new avenues of experimental research. Recently, the use of transgenic mice, containing multiple copies of the jellyfish gene encoding the green fluorescent protein (GFP), has begun to realize this potential. Here, we show ...Chimera; Crosses, Genetic; Gestational Age; Green Fluorescent Proteins; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Phenotype1998-10-27
97 Capecchi, Mario R.In vivo and in vitro tissue-specific expression of green fluorescent protein using the cre-lox system in mouse embryonic stem cells.Embryonic stem cells (ES) are pluripotent and may therefore serve as a source for the generation of specific cell types required for future therapies based on cell replacement. The isolation of defined cell populations from a certain lineage or tissue is a prerequisite for the analysis of the potent...Animals; Cell Differentiation; Cells, Cultured; Gene Transfer Techniques; Mice, Transgenic2005-10-23
98 Capecchi, Mario R.Critical role of tissue angiotensin-converting enzyme as revealed by gene targeting in miceAngiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) generates the vasoconstrictor angiotensin II, which plays a critical role in maintenance of blood pressure in mammals. Although significant ACE activity is found in plasma, the majority of the enzyme is bound to tissues such as the vascular endothelium. We used ta...Blood pressure; ACE activity; Enzyme1997-03-06
99 Capecchi, Mario R.N-formylmethionyl-sRNA as the initiator of protein synthesis.A bizarre fast about Nterminal groups of bacterial proteins. Instead of a random mixture, that the great majority of N-terminal groups were either methionine or alanine. This finding suggested that methionine and alanine constituted start signals for the initiation of polypeptide chains. Alternative...Electrophoresis; Formates; In Vitro; Methionine1966-01-01
100 Gesteland, Raymond F.; Alam, Steve L.; Nelson, Chad; Felden, Brice; Atkins, John F.Effects of 3'-terminal phosphates in RNA produced by ribozyme cleavageDuring the course of a structural investigation of a selenocysteine insertion element from rat Type 1 iodothyronine 59-deiodinase (D1 SECIS), we wished to prepare milligram quantities of an RNA that comprised the upper stem/loop of this RNA structure (41 nt; Fig+ 1A)+ This stem/loop is a stimul...In vitro runoff transcription; RNA; Trans-acting ribozymes1998
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