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51 Evidence for assortative mating and selection in surnames: a case from Yucatan, MexicoSurnames are often used as metaphors for genetic material on the assumption of neutrality and general immunity from systematic pressures. The Yucatec Maya use surnames of both Maya and Spanish origin. We find evidence of positive assortative mating by ethnic origin of surname and a slight bias away ...Surnames; Assortative mating; Maya1985
52 On network analysis: the potential for understanding (and misunderstanding) !Kung HxaroSchweizer's social network analysis (CA 38: 739-52) of gift giving among the !Kung San (Ju/'hoansi) demonstrates most elegantly how individual strategies, guided by basic cultural rules, coalesce to form a regional system. Complex connections in the network that defied description with simpler anayt...Density of kinship; Nonsymmetry; Ethnohistorica1998-08
53 Hunting and the evolution of egalitarian societies: lessons from the HadzaPolitical hierarchies are common in human societies but absent among many mobile hunter-gatherers. So egalitarian social organizations have been attributed to limits that foraging imposes on wealth accumulation. But male-dominance hierarchies characterize all the great apes, our nearest relatives. ...2000
54 Alyawara plant use and optimal foraging theoryVarious authors have remarked on the importance of seeds in the pre-European diet of central Australian Aborigines. The Alyawara, an Arandic-speaking group, were typical in this respect. They collected edible seeds from nearly half the eighty-five plant species in their traditional subsistence inven...Australia; Aborigines; Foraging; Seeds1981
55 Prehistoric human impacts on California birds: evidence from the Emeryville Shellmound AvifaunaThe abundance of artiodactyls, marine mammals, waterfowl, seabirds, and other animals in 18th- and 19th-century California astonished early explorers, and the incredible wildlife densities reported in their accounts are routinely taken as analogues for the original or pristine zoological condition. ...Avifauna; Prehistoric hunting; Biological evaluation of environmental impacts2004
56 Sociobiology of sex and sexes (comment)A comment on "Sociobiology of sex and sexes" by Marion Blute.Sociobiology; Sex and sexes1984-04
57 Evolution of time preference by natural selectionThis paper entertains the hypothesis that human time preferences are in evolutionary equilibrium (i.e. that no mutation changing time preferences could be favored by natural selection). This hypothesis implies that the marginal rate of substitution (MRS) holding Darwinian fitness constant must equal...Capitalism; Econometric models; Equilibrium1994-06
58 Modeling the amplification dynamics of human Alu retrotransposonsRetrotransposons have had a considerable impact on the overall architecture of the human genome. Currently, there are three lineages of retrotransposons (Alu, L1, and SVA) that are believed to be actively replicating in humans. While estimates of their copy number, sequence diversity, and levels of ...Retrotransposons; Amplification dynamics; Mutation; Human-chimpanzee divergence2005
59 Waist-to-hip ratio across cultures: trade-offs between androgen- and estrogen-dependent traitsA gynoid pattern of fat distribution, with small waist and large hips (low waist-to-hip ratio, or WHR) holds significant fitness benefits for women: women with a low WHR of about 0.7 are more fecund, are less prone to chronic disease, and (in most cultures) are considered more attractive. Why, then...Fat distribution; Gynoid pattern; Body types; Waist-to-hip ratio; WHR2008
60 Global process and local ecology: how should we explain differences between the Hadza and the !Kung?In this chapter we discuss explanations for the diversity of behavior of contemporary forager populations. Other contributors document variation among southern African savanna Bushman groups, and central African forest Pygmies. We confine ourselves to trying to explain some differences between two ...1996
61 Economic man in cross-cultural perspective: behavioral experiments in 15 small-scale societiesSince "Selfishness examined . . ." (Caporael et al. 1989) appeared in these pages, more than 15 years ago, many additional experiments have strongly confirmed the doubts expressed by Caporael and her collaborators concerning the adequacy of self-interest as a behavioral foundation for the social sci...Economic outcomes; Selfishness; Fairness; Reciprocity2005
62 Social learning and the maintenance of cultural variation: an evolutionary model and data from East AfricaHuman societies maintain between-group variation despite mixing of people and ideas. In order for variation to remain, migrants or their children must preferentially adopt local norms, customs, and beliefs. Yet the details of how cultural variation is maintained, despite mixing, remain unknown. This...Cultural variation; cultural identity; East Africa2004
63 On Human fertility: Individual or group benefit?Caldwell et al. (CA 28:25-43) have pointed to the pervasive influence of Carr-Saunders's (1922) concept of population regulation throughout two-thirds of a century of anthropology and demography.1988-01-01
64 On sharing and work (a comment on Bird-David)Bird-David (CA 33:25-47) discusses reasons for the persistent vitality and wide appeal of Sahlins's influential characterization of hunter-gatherers as representatives of 'original affluence."1992-01-01
65 Family provisioning is not the only reason men huntGurven and Hill (2009) ask, "Why do mean hunt?" As they say, "The observation that mean hunt and women gather supported the simplistic view of marriage as a cooperative enterprise. Greater sophistication suggests that males may often be motivated by mating and status rather than offspring investment...2010-01-01
66 Model of kin-structured migrationWhen individuals disperse from one local group to another, they often do so in the company of relatives. This is known as "kin-structured migration," and its effect on genetic population structure is investigated here. It is shown that when migration is kin-structured, the ratio of between- to with...Fission; Mobility; Population1987
67 Spatial and temporal stability of mtDNA haplogroup frequencies in native North AmericaMitochondrial DNA lineage frequencies in prehistoric Aleut, eastern Utah Fremont, Southwestern Anasazi, Pyramid Lake, and Stillwater Marsh skeletal samples from northwest Nevada and the Oneota of western Illinois are compared with those in 41 contemporary aboriginal populations of North America. T...Mitochondrial DNA; Lineage variation; Haplogroup assignment2000
68 Genetic evidence on modern human originsA review of genetic evidence leads to the following conclusions concerning human population history: (1) Between 33,000 and 150,000 years ago the human population expanded from an initial size of perhaps 10,000 breeding individuals, reaching a size of at least 300,000. (2) Although the initial popu...Population history; Mitochondrial DNA; Mismatch distribution; Intermatch distribution; Replacement hypothesis; Population bottlenecks1995
69 Some current ideas about the evolution of the human life historyHuman life history is characterised by a long juvenile period (weaning to reproductive maturity), and a long post-reproductive lifespan in females. How do we explain the differences between our nearest relatives, the great apes, and ourselves? This chapter summarises some recent attempts to use l...Human life history; Fertility; Apes; Juvenile period1999
70 Numic fires: modeling the effects of anthropogenic fire on foraging decisions in the Great BasinAcross Western North America, hunter-gatherers modified their surrounding environment with the application of fire (1; 11; 15). However, to date we lack a general theoretical framework to investigate the reasons why people would burn or its effects on traditional foraging economies. To begin to fill...Behavioral ecology; Diet; Fire2015
71 New methods in quantitative ethnography: economic experiments and variation in the price of equalityA new method for quantitatively documenting concerns for economic fairness has the potential for identifying variation in prosociality within and across societies. Multiple dictator games conducted in two small-scale societies presented decision makers with a choice between an equitable and an ine...Inequality; Payoffs; Prosociality2007-12
72 Shared norms and the evolution of ethnic markersUnlike other primates, human populations are often divided into ethnic groups that have self-ascribed membership and are marked by seemingly arbitrary traits such as distinctive styles of dress or speech (Barth 1969, 1981). The modern understanding that ethnic identities are flexible and ethnic bou...Ethnic groups; Ethnic identity; Migration; Markers2003-02
73 J. P. Rushtons theory of ethnic nepotismUnreciprocated aid among co-ethnics and the emotional intensity of ethnic conflict have long been explanatory challenges to evolutionary science. J. P. Rushton's theory of assortative ethnic affiliation-altruism, mating and friendship directed towards fellow ethnics-derives from his more general the...2012-01-01
74 Technological change and child behavior among the !KungHow does change in one part of a social system affect other parts? This is the central question that must be answered in order to understand the process through which culture changes. This paper is about a small piece of the problem. It investigates how changes in subsistence economy affect child be...Child behavior; Technological change; Foraging groups; Settled groups1988
75 Human life histories: primate trade-offs, grandmothering socioecology, and the fossil recordHuman life histories differ from those of other animals in several striking ways. Recently Smith and Tompkins (1995, p. 258) highlighted the combination of "slow" and "fast" features of human lives. Our period of juvenile dependency is unusually long, our age at first reproduction is late, and we h...Meat; Maturity; Life Span2003
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