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51 Downes, Stephen M.Herbert Simon's computational models of scientific discoveryHerbert Simon's work on scientific discovery deserves serious attention by philosophers of science for several reasons. First, Simon was an early advocate of rational scientific discovery, contra Popper and logical empiricist philosophers of science (Simon 1966). This proposal spurred on investigati...Android epistemology; Psychological processes; Cognitive individualism1990
52 White, Nicholas P.Review of M. Schofield and G. Striker, eds., 'The Norms of Nature'This is a review of of The Norms of Nature: Studies in Hellenistic Ethics, edited by Malcom Schofield and Gisela Striker. The book contains nine studies on Epicurean, Stoic, and Skeptic views on value and ethics.Book review; Values; Epicureans (Greek Philosophy;); Stoics; Philosophy;, Ancient1990
53 White, Nicholas P.Review of T. Penner, 'The ascent from nominalism'This is a review of Terry Penner's The Ascent from Nominalism. Penner's book is an attempt to reorient Platonic studies, not so much by raising new issues as by looking at the old ones differently.Book review; Platonism; Philosophy;, Greek1991
54 Tuttle, Howard N.Some issues in Ortega y Gasset's critique of Heidegger's doctrine of SeinThe purpose of this paper is to propose a hypothesis to illuminate Ortega's critical response to Heidegger's question of being (Seinsfrage). While Ortega integrated the classical requirements for the idea of Being into his idea of human life as radical reality, Heidegger's delineation of human life...1991
55 Millgram, ElijahHarman's hardness argumentsIn "Change in View" Gilbert Harman produces arguments of the following pattern: Of two competing methods of belief revision, one is too hard; the other must therefore be the rational method. I will call arguments of this form hardness arguments. Hardness arguments are not, of course, peculiar to Har...Philosophy;; Rationality; Reason; Cognition1991-09
56 Landesman, Bruce M.Marxism and philosophy in the twentieth century: a defense of vulgar Marxism (Book Review)A review of "Marxism and philosophy in the twentieth century: a defense of vulgar Marxism" by Richard Hudelson.Books; Marxism; Philosophy1991-10
57 Battin, Margaret P.To die or not to die? cross-disciplinary, cultural, and legal perspectives on the right to choose deathOne things to lament, as public discussion of the right to die approaches a rolling boil, is the insularity of American View about withholding and with-drawing treatment, euthanasia and suicide. To Die or Not to Die? presents ten papers which challenge this insularity from the points of view of vary...1992
58 Battin, Margaret P.Assisted suicide: can we learn from Germany?As the United States' public discussion of euthanasia and assisted suicide grows increasingly volatile, our interest in the Netherlands--the only country that openly permits the practice of euthanasia--has grown enormously. How do they do it? we ask. What drugs do they use? How many cases of euthan...Assisted suicide; Netherlands; Right to die1992
59 Downes, Stephen M.Importance of models in theorizing: a deflationary semantic viewIt is commonly acknowledged in science that model construction is one of the most important components of theorizing. Philosophers of science are gradually coming to acknowledge this situation, spurred on by holders of the semantic view of theories. In this paper I wish to defend a very deflationary...Theories; Mathematical; Scientific1992
60 Battin, Margaret P.Dying in 559 beds: efficiency, "best buys," and the ethics of standardization in national health careIn The Notebooks of Malte Laurids Brigge, the "heavy, difficult book" begun in Rome during the winter of 1903-4 and not finished until 1910 in Paris, Rilke employs a series of rapid, jolting impressions to express his pervasive concern with death and his distress about the institutional character o...1992
61 Battin, Margaret P.Voluntary euthanasia and the risks of abuse: can we learn anything from the Netherlands?In the United Stares' quite volatile public debates over the legalization of voluntary active euthanasia and physician assisted suicide, much has been made of the risk of abuse. Indeed, it was probably tears of abuse that contributed more than any other single factor to the 1991 defeat of the Unite...Slippery slope; Deliberations; Scruples1992
62 Landesman, Bruce M.Health care in a national health program: a fundamental rightDo or should Americans have a right to health care or some appropriate level of it? To explore this difficult and complex question, we must say something about rights and ways to justify them; about considerations which favor a right to health care; about what level and kind of care the right may in...Health care; Rights; Americans1992
63 Battin, Margaret P.To die or not to die? (Book Review)Reviews the book `To Die or Not to Die? Cross-disciplinary, Cultural, and Legal Perspectives on the Right to Choose Death,' edited by Arthur S. Berger and Joyce Berger.Books; Law; Death1992-07
64 Battin, Margaret P.Seven (more) caveats concerning the discussion of euthanasia in the NetherlandsDiscussion in the U.S. about euthanasia in the Netherlands is characterized by profound disagreement, both about what the practice actually is and what risks it involves. Some time ago, I put together a little list1 of seven warnings for bioethicists embroiled in this discussion-things one ought to...1993
65 Battin, Margaret P.Suicidology and the right to dieAs suicidology reflects on the issue of the right to die, it can make no bigger mistake than by seeing suicide and suicidal behavior in short-sighted isolation, without reference to the cultural context within which it occurs. Two kinds of myopia currently afflict us in particularly constricting way...1993
66 Battin, Margaret P.Nicole: suicide and terminal illnessThe terminally ill person who plans suicide poses a clinical dilemma in suicidology. Issues of rational suicide are complicated. Although experts (Battin, 1991; Hoff, 1989; Motto, 1972; Pretzel, 1984; Saunders & Valente, 1988) recognize rational suicide, the prevailing paradigm of suicide preventio...Terminal illness; Suicidology1993
67 Battin, Margaret P.Aging and ethics: philosophical problems in gerontologyAging and Ethics addresses a crucial issue: In order to address the dilemmas aging poses concerning distributive justice in health care, don't we need to rethink both the personal and social significance of old age?1993
68 Millgram, ElijahPleasure in practical reasoningPractical reasoning often strikes philosophers as ungrounded. It seems to them that desires are to be justified by reasoning that proceeds from, inter alia, further desires, and these further desires are to be justified by reference to still further desires. Avoiding circularity and infinite regres...1993
69 Francis, LeslieLaw and Philosophy;: from skepticism to value theoryTo write about Philosophy; and law is both odd and daunting. It is odd because the topic seems to presuppose that the two fields are separate and that Philosophy; may be unfamiliar to legal practice and legal practitioners. Yet, recognized or not, Philosophy; is part of the ordinary life of law sch...1993
70 Landesman, Bruce M.Violence, terrorism and justice eds. Frey, R. G., & Morris, C., Christopher W. (Review)Consider two views about terrorism. The first, the conventional view, is that terrorism is an outrage. It involves, typically, the kidnapping, killing, and intimidation of innocent people who simply happen to be in the wrong place. Terrorists are fanatics, thugs, criminals, deranged individuals, wh...Kill; Assault; terrorist1993
71 Landesman, Bruce M.Violence, terrorism and justice (Book Review)Reviews the book `Violence, Terrorism and Justice,' edited by R.G. Frey and Christopher W. Morris.Books; Philosophy;; Terrorism; Justice; Violence1993-07
72 Battin, Margaret P.; Jacobson, Jay A.; Francis, Leslie P.Patients' understanding and use of advance directivesThe Patient Self-Determination Act was implemented in December 1991. Before and after its implementation, we used a structured interview of 302 randomly selected patients to determine their awareness, understanding, and use of advance directives. Implementation of the Act did not have a major effec...1994
73 Battin, Margaret P.Cases for kids: using puzzles to teach aesthetics to childrenNothing stupefies kids (I have in mind young people, though the same is true of many adults) as quickly as long-winded, jargon-filled, highly abstract theoretical discourse, especially when it seems to have no immediate utility. Kids like fun. They like play; they like games; they like challenges an...Aesthetics; Education; Children; Puzzles1994
74 Thalos, Mariam G.Common need for classical epistemological foundations: against a feminist alternativeThe difficulties of justifying a recipe for scientific inquiry that calls for sensory experience and logic as sole ingredients can hardly be overestimated. Resolving the riddles of induction, steadily mounting against empiricism since Hume, has come to seem like an exercise in making bricks without...Epistomology; Feminism; Sensory experience; Logic; Inductive inference1994
75 Battin, Margaret P.Death ethics: religious and cultural values in prolonging and ending lifeIn this sequel to his earlier Birth Ethics, Kenneth Vaux again uses what he calls a 'multiphasic ethical scheme," incorporating naturalistic, humanistic, and theistic values to explore the issues of suicide, euthanasia, letting die, genocide, withdrawing life supports, and other end-of-life issues.1994
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