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26 2-4a - Disc AnatomyThe optic disc appearance is determined by: the size of the eye, the size of the scleral canal, how the nerve is inserted into the globe, the appearance of the lamina cribrosa, where myelination stops, and what is left behind in normal development. Even though this is a disc with a very large cup, i...Image
27 2-53b - Venous PulsationsOn the disc, look for spontaneous venous pulsations. Spontaneous venous pulsations can be seen in the large trunks of veins at the level of the disc margin. They are normally present and seen in 37-90% of normals -- depending on the experience of the examiner and the shape of the disc. The spontaneo...Image
28 2-7a - Disc AnatomyThe optic disc appearance is determined by: the size of the eye, the size of the scleral canal, how the nerve is inserted into the globe, the appearance of the lamina cribrosa, where myelination stops, and what is left behind in normal development. Even though this is a disc with a very large cup, i...Image
29 2-53a - Venous PulsationsOn the disc, look for spontaneous venous pulsations. Spontaneous venous pulsations can be seen in the large trunks of veins at the level of the disc margin. They are normally present and seen in 37-90% of normals -- depending on the experience of the examiner and the shape of the disc. The spontaneo...Image
30 2-37b - Vascular FeaturesWhen looking at the disc, the central retinal artery and vein should be visible. The central retinal artery is usually slightly narrower than the vein. When the central retinal artery goes though the lamina cribrosa, the artery becomes smaller because of diminution of the muscular layer and loss of ...Image
31 Basal EncephalocelesText
32 4-54a -Optic Neuropathy, Ischemic: PosteriorImage
33 4-52b - Dominant Optic NeuropathyA son presented with bilateral optic atrophy of unknown etiology after he failed a school visual exam. When looking for dominant optic atrophy, look at the parents. Mother was examined to find similar kind of atrophy. 4-52a mother, 4-52b son.Image
34 Stage 2 - PapilledemaImage
35 Shunt Vessel MeningiomaRETINO-CHOROIDAL (OPTO-CILIARY) COLLATERAL VESSELS: (also known as Retinal-choroidal venous collaterals, opticociliary veins or ciliary shunt vessels) Retino-choroidal collaterals are potential telangiectatic connections between the retina and choroidal circulation. Although sometimes called "shunts...Image
36 Stages of PapilledemaText
37 3-60b - MeningiomaThis 35 year old woman presented with slowly progressive loss of central acuity to 20/30. 3-60a: Her visual field shows progressive restriction over time. 3-60b: Her disc was chronically swollen, with refractile bodies on the disc surface. 3-60d: The CT axial scan showed an enlarged calcified optic...Image
38 Shunt Vessel Meningioma - MRIMeningiomas block venous egress and open potential venous channels known as retinochoroidal (optociliary) collateral vein. This meningioma extends from the back of the globe through the optic canal.Image
39 3-56a - SarcoidImage
40 Leber's Hereditary Optic NeuropathyText
41 3-3 - Bergmeister PapillaImage
42 2-6a - Little Red DiscsImage
43 3-59c - GliomaThis 45-year-old man presented with vision loss in his right eye; his examination showed severe disc swelling in this eye and vision loss on visual field testing (3-59a). MRI with fat saturation and enhancement and MRI with T2 signals also confirm an enlarged optic nerve. (3-59c) Excisional biopsy o...Image
44 4-54b - Optic Neuropathy, Ischemic: PosteriorImage
45 3-60a - MeningiomaThis 35 year old woman presented with slowly progressive loss of central acuity to 20/30. 3-60a: Her visual field shows progressive restriction over time. 3-60b: Her disc was chronically swollen, with refractile bodies on the disc surface. 3-60d: The CT axial scan showed an enlarged calcified optic...Image
46 Shaken Baby SyndromeText
47 4-60a - Dominant Optic NeuropathyA son presented with bilateral optic atrophy of unknown etiology after he failed a school visual exam. When looking for dominant optic atrophy, look at the parents. Mother was examined to find similar kind of atrophy. 4-60a mother, 4-60b son.Image
48 3-59a - GliomaThis 45-year-old man presented with vision loss in his right eye; his examination showed severe disc swelling in this eye and vision loss on visual field testing (3-59a). MRI with fat saturation and enhancement and MRI with T2 signals also confirm an enlarged optic nerve. (3-59c) Excisional biopsy o...Image
49 2-6b - Little Red DiscsImage
50 3-60d - MeningiomaThis 35 year old woman presented with slowly progressive loss of central acuity to 20/30. 3-60a: Her visual field shows progressive restriction over time. 3-60b: Her disc was chronically swollen, with refractile bodies on the disc surface. 3-60d: The CT axial scan showed an enlarged calcified optic...Image
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