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TitleDescriptionType
26 3-64a - Shunt Vessels (CRVO)This man with a chronic CRVO and retino-choroidal collaterals developed AION and his collaterals disappeared. CRVO with retinochoroidal collaterals is almost always associated with multiple peripheral dot and blot hemorrhages as well as nerve fiber layer infarcts of various ages. Notice the retino-c...Image
27 3-65 - Shunt Vessels (Glaucoma)Chronic end-stage glaucoma produces high pressure that interferes with venous drainage from the disc and broad smooth venous collaterals drain the disc centrifugally to the disc margin where they drain.Image
28 3-66a - Shunt Vessels (post-papilledema)The retino-choroidal collaterals seen with chronic papilledema begin with a "Hairnet" of telangiectasias that gradually winnow down to one or more large collateral tortuous draining channel. The presence of these vessels is evidence of long standing disc swelling. When the CSF pressure is lowered, t...Image
29 3-66d - Shunt Vessels (post-papilledema)The retino-choroidal collaterals seen with chronic papilledema begin with a "Hairnet" of telangiectasias that gradually winnow down to one or more large collateral tortuous draining channel. The presence of these vessels is evidence of long standing disc swelling. When the CSF pressure is lowered, t...Image
30 4-35 - Cupped Optic NerveAtrophic Glaucoma Atrophic glaucomatous discs show thinning of the neuro-retinal rim, "saucerization" (which is shallow cupping), evidence of peripapillary atrophy, and pallor of the very narrow neuroretinal rim. Notice that there is severe atrophy of the nerve fiber layer.Image
31 4-52b - Dominant Optic NeuropathyA son presented with bilateral optic atrophy of unknown etiology after he failed a school visual exam. When looking for dominant optic atrophy, look at the parents. Mother was examined to find similar kind of atrophy. 4-52a mother, 4-52b son.Image
32 4-54a -Optic Neuropathy, Ischemic: PosteriorImage
33 4-54b - Optic Neuropathy, Ischemic: PosteriorImage
34 4-60a - Dominant Optic NeuropathyA son presented with bilateral optic atrophy of unknown etiology after he failed a school visual exam. When looking for dominant optic atrophy, look at the parents. Mother was examined to find similar kind of atrophy. 4-60a mother, 4-60b son.Image
35 A-scan TechniqueThis video describes and demonstrates the A-scan examination technique for examination of the eye using ultrasonography.Image/MovingImage
36 Abducting (Dissociated) NystagmusExample of a patient with abducting (dissociated) nystagmus. Patient has a subtle internuclear ophthalmoplegia. Right eye has right-beating jerk nystagmus, with smaller oscillations in the left eye.Image/MovingImage
37 Aberrant Regeneration of the LidPatient with left third nerve palsy demonstrates anisocoria and mild vertical gaze limitation and aberrant movement of the left upper lid. Patient is instructed through all gaze positions. Left upper lid does not descend during downgaze but retracts instead.Image/MovingImage
38 Aberrant regeneration of the right pupilAberrant regeneration of the right pupil in a man with a large intracavernous sinus meningioma causing a pupil-involving, incomplete third cranial nerve palsy. His pupil is round when he gazes straight ahead (top). When he tries to rotate the eye medially, the pupil constricts, but a segment of the ...Image/StillImage
39 Aberrant Regeneration of the Seventh NerveExamples of patients with aberrant regeneration of the seventh nerve. First example is a patient with contractions around the mouth and dimpling, demonstrated with slow and rapid eye blinking. Second example shows contraction around nose with eye blink.Image/MovingImage
40 Aberrant Regeneration of the ThirdPatient with a right third nerve palsy demonstrates ptosis, anisocoria and ophthalmoplegia. During attempted downgaze, the right upper lid flutters back up (aberrant movement) and remains retracted.Image/MovingImage
41 Aberrant Regeneration of the Third and Sixth NervesImage/MovingImage
42 Aberrant Regeneration of Third Nerve, Bilaterally (1 degree OD, 2 Digrees OS)Example of patient with bilateral aberrancy of the third nerve. Shows lids popping up (synkinetic) with adduction. Patient had bilateral internal carotid artery aneurisms with third nerve compression.Image/MovingImage
43 Amsler Grid TestingDemonstration of Amsler Grid examination.Text
44 An enhancing bladder metastasis involving the tectum of the midbrainMagnetic resonance image of an enhancing bladder metastasis involving the tectum of the midbrain of a 56-year-old man who developed double vision resulting from skew deviation and divergence insufficiency. He also had a left-sided relative afferent pupillary defect measuring 1.4 log units but showed...Image/StillImage
45 Anatomy of the oculosympathetic pathwayAnatomy of the oculosympathetic pathway. (Maloney WF, Younge BR, Moyer NJ: Evaluation of the causes and accuracy of pharmacologic localization in Horner's syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol 1980;90:394-402, Ophthalmic Publishing Company with permission.)Image/StillImage
46 Anatomy of the pupillary light reflex pathwayAnatomy of the pupillary light reflex pathway. (Miller NR: Walsh And Hoyt's Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, p 421. Vol 2, 4th ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1985, with permission.)Image/StillImage
47 Anterior ischemic optic neuropathyPPT describing Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy (AION). Covers clinical signs, such as monocular vision loss, swollen nerve, and visual field defects, as well as risk factors.Text
48 Argyll Robertson pupilsArgyll Robertson pupils in an elderly man treated for tabes dorsalis in 1952. His pupils are small and slightly irregular, constrict poorly in response to light stimulation (top), dilate poorly in darkness (middle), but constrict promptly in response to near stimulation (bottom).Image/StillImage
49 Assessment of an afferent pupillary defect when only one iris is functionalAssessment of an afferent pupillary defect when only one iris is functional. In this example, a right-sided parasellar tumor is compressing both the optic and oculomotor nerves, causing an optic neuropathy and a pupil-involving third crainial nerve palsy. The pupil on the affected side has both an a...Image/StillImage
50 B-scan TechniqueThis video describes and demonstrates the B-scan examination technique for examination of the eye using ultrasonography.Image/MovingImage
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