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26 How close are we to implementing gene targeting in animals other than the mouse?Describes several significant contributions that bring us much closer to extending ‘‘gene targeting'' to mammalian species other than the mouse. Gene targeting now provides the means for creating new strains of mice with mutations in virtually any gene. First, the desired mutation is introduced ...Cattle; Mutagenesis; Mice; Humans; Ethics, Medical2000-02-01
27 Evolutionary specialization of recoding: frameshifting in the expression of S. cerevisiae antizyme mRNA is via an atypical antizyme shift site but is still +1An autoregulatory translational shift to the +1 frame is required for the expression of ornithine decarboxylase antizyme from fungi to mammals. In most eukaryotes, including all vertebrates and a majority of the studied fungi/yeast, the site on antizyme mRNA where the shift occurs is UCC-UGA. The me...Antizyme; ODC; Polyamines; Frameshifting2006
28 Sociobiology of sex and sexes (comment)A comment on "Sociobiology of sex and sexes" by Marion Blute.Sociobiology; Sex and sexes1984-04
29 Genotype-phenotype analysis of ABCR variants in macular degeneration probands and siblingsPURPOSE: Single-copy variants of the autosomal recessive Stargardt disease (STGD1) gene ABCR (ABCA4) have been shown to confer enhanced susceptibility to age-related macular degeneration (AMD). To investigate the role of ABCR alleles in AMD further, genotype-phenotype analysis was performed on sibli...DNA Mutational Analysis; Nuclear Family; Phenotype2002
30 Roles of Fgf4 and Fgf8 in limb bud initiation and outgrowth.Although numerous molecules required for limb bud formation have recently been identified, the molecular pathways that initiate this process and ensure that limb formation occurs at specific axial positions have yet to be fully elucidated. Based on experiments in the chick, Fgf8 expression in the in...Animals; Apoptosis; Forelimb; Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental; High Mobility Group Proteins; Hindlimb; In Situ Hybridization; Mesoderm; Mice, Mutant Strains; Trans-Activators2004-09
31 Hoxc13 mutant mice lack external hairHox genes are usually expressed temporally and spatially in a colinear manner with respect to their positions in the Hox complex. Consistent with the expected pattern for a paralogous group 13 member, early embryonic Hoxc13 expression is found in the nails and tail. Hoxc13 is also expressed in vibri...Filiform papillae; Homozygotes; Paralogous1998-01-01
32 Upstream stimulators for recodingRecent progress in elucidation of 5' stimulatory elements for translational recoding is reviewed. A 5' Shine-Dalgarno sequence increases both +l and ? I frameshift efficiency in several genes; examples cited include the E. coli prfB gene encoding release factor 2 and the thuiX gene encoding the y an...Recoding; Frameshifting; Peptide factor; Stimulatory elements1995
33 Targeted disruption of the even-skipped gene, evx1, causes early postimplantation lethality of the mouse conceptus.Implantation within the mammalian uterus elicits dramatic changes in the growth, differentiation, and morphogenesis of the conceptus. This process is interrupted in mice carrying a targeted disruption of the murine evx1 gene, a homolog of the Drosophila even-skipped (eve) gene. Upon implantation, pr...Extraembryonic; Homozygotes; Drosophila1994-08-15
34 Comparative studies of frameshifting and nonframeshifting RNA pseudoknots: a mutational and NMR investigation of pseudoknots derived from the bacteriophage T2 gene 32 mRNA and the retroviral gag-pro frameshift siteMutational and NMR methods were used to investigate features of sequence, structure, and dynamics that are associated with the ability of a pseudoknot to stimulate a "1 frameshift. In vitro frameshift assays were performed on retroviral gag-pro frameshift-stimulating pseudoknots and their derivati...Frameshifting; NMR; Pseudoknot; Retrovirus2002
35 Maintenance of functional equivalence during paralogous Hox gene evolution.Biological diversity is driven mainly by gene duplication followed by mutation and selection. This divergence in either regulatory or protein-coding sequences can result in quite different biological functions for even closely related genes. This concept is exemplified by the mammalian Hox gene comp...Alleles; Animals; Cervical Vertebrae; Embryo; Genetic Complementation Test; Homeodomain Proteins; Homozygote; Mice2000-02-10
36 Targeting genes for self-excision in the germ lineA procedure is described that directs the self-induced deletion of DNA sequences as they pass through the male germ line of mice. The testes-specific promoter from the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene was used to drive expression of the Cre-recombinase gene. Cre was linked to the selectable marker...Cre-recombinase; Hoxa3; Chimeric mice1999-06-15
37 Virtual histology of transgenic mouse embryos for high-throughput phenotyping.A bold new effort to disrupt every gene in the mouse genome necessitates systematic, interdisciplinary approaches to analyzing patterning defects in the mouse embryo. We present a novel, rapid, and inexpensive method for obtaining high-resolution virtual histology for phenotypic assessment of mouse ...Forkhead Transcription Factors; Paired Box Transcription Factors2006
38 Probing the structure of the Escherichia coli 10Sa RNA (tmRNA)The conformation of the Escherichia coli 10Sa RNA (tmRNA) in solution was investigated using chemical and enzymatic probes. Single- and double-stranded domains were identified by hydrolysis of tmRNA in imidazole buffer and by lead(II)-induced cleavages. Ribonucleases T1 and S1 were used to map unpai...Covariation; Pseudoknot; Structural Probing; 10Sa RNA; tmRNA1997
39 Xanthine oxidoreductase is central to the evolution and function of the innate immune system.The housekeeping enzyme xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) has been studied intensively over the past 100 years, yet the complexity of its in vivo function is still poorly understood. A large body of literature focuses on the different catalyltic forms of XOR and their importance in the synthesis of reac...Animals; Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic; Humans; Immune System; Models, Biological2003-09-01
40 -1 frameshifting at a CGA AAG hexanucleotide site is required for transposition of insertion sequence IS1222The discovery of programmed _x0001_1 frameshifting at the hexanucleotide shift site CGA_AAG, in addition to the classical X_XXY_YYZ heptanucleotide shift sequences, prompted a search for instances among eubacterial insertion sequence elements. IS1222 has a CGA_AAG shift site. A genetic analysis re...Hexanucleotides; Heptanucleotides; Frameshifting2004
41 Influence of the stacking potential of the base 3' of tandem shift codons on -1 ribosomal frameshifting used for gene expressionTranslating ribosomes can shift reading frame at specific sites with high efficiency for gene expression purposes. The most common type of shift to the 1 frame involves a tandem realignment of two anticodons from pairing with mRNA sequence of the form X XXY YYZ to XXX YYY Z where the spaces indicate...1 frameshifting; 39 context effect; Codon anticodon interaction; Escherichia coli ; Recoding; tRNALys; XXXY YYZ frameshift motifs2002
42 Processing of adenovirus 2-induced proteinsAnalysis of (35)S-methionine-labeled extracts of adenovirus 2-infected KB cells revealed 22 virus-induced polypeptide components. Most proteins of the virion were easily detected in extracts of whole cells labeled for short periods between 15 and 30 h after infection; however, several virion compone...Adenoviridae; Viral Proteins; Protein Precursors; Methionine; Mouth Neoplasms1973
43 Fundamental cellular processes do not require vertebrate-specific sequences within the TATA-binding protein.The 180-amino acid core of the TATA-binding protein (TBPcore) is conserved from Archae bacteria to man. Vertebrate TBPs contain, in addition, a large and highly conserved N-terminal region that is not found in other phyla. We have generated a line of mice in which the tbp allele is replaced with a v...Mice, Knockout; Cells, Cultured; Fibroblasts; Embryo2003-02-21
44 Elevated plasma phenylalanine in severe malaria and implications for pathophysiology of neurological complications.Cerebral malaria is associated with decreased production of nitric oxide and decreased levels of its precursor, l-arginine. Abnormal amino acid metabolism may thus be an important factor in malaria pathogenesis. We sought to determine if other amino acid abnormalities are associated with disease sev...Dystonia; Phenylalanine Hydroxylase; Tyrosine2006-06-01
45 Hox group 3 paralogous genes act synergistically in the formation of somitic and neural crest-derived structures.Hox genes encode transcription factors that are used to regionalize the mammalian embryo. Analysis of mice carrying targeted mutations in individual and multiple Hox genes is beginning to reveal a complex network of interactions among these closely related genes which is responsible for directing th...Abnormalities, Multiple; Gene Targeting; Glossopharyngeal Nerve; Mice, Knockout; Morphogenesis1997-12-15
46 Hox genes and mammalian developmentWe have examined the interactions of Hox genes in forming a cervical vertebrae, hindbrain, and limbs. In each case, it is apparent that individual Hox genes are performing individual functions but that more profound roles are apparent when they act in combination with others Hox genes. The observed ...Drosophila; Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental; Homozygote1997
47 Transcriptional slippage in bacteria: distribution in sequenced genomes and utilization in IS element gene expressionABSTRACT: Background: Transcription slippage occurs on certain patterns of repeat mononucleotides, resulting in synthesis of a heterogeneous population of mRNAs. Individual mRNA molecules within this population differ in the number of nucleotides they contain that are not specified by the templat...Transcription slippage; Bacterial genomes; IS element genes2005
48 rRNA-mRNA base pairing stimulates a programmed -1 ribosomal frameshiftBase pairing between the 3' end of 16S rRNA and mRNA is shown to be important for the programmed -1 frameshifting utilized in decoding the Escherichia coli dnaX gene. This pairing is the same as the Shine-Dalgarno pairing used by prokaryotic ribosomes in selection of translation initiators, but for ...Frameshifting; Escherichia coli; Binding Sites; Base Composition1994
49 Protein synthesis directed by DNA phage messengers.Even through the amino acids corresponding to most of the 64 nucleotide triplets are now known, several important aspects of the genetic code are not yet fully understood. In particular we need more knowledge about the "punctuation marks" of the code-for example, the signals necessary for the initia...Carbon Isotopes; Escherichia coli; Genetic Code; Methionine1967-09-01
50 Origins and affinities of modern humans: a comparison of mitochondrial and nuclear genetic dataTo test hypotheses about the origin of modern humans, we analyzed mtDNA sequences, 30 nuclear restriction-site polymorphisms (RSPs), and 30 tetranucleotide short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphisms in 243 Africans, Asians, and Europeans. An evolutionary tree based on mtDNA displays deep African branch...Base Sequence; Variation (Genetics); Base Sequence1995
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