301 - 325 of 2,224
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TitleCreatorDescription
301 Walsh & Hoyt: Seizures occur in some patients with neurosarcoidosisSteven R. Hamilton, MD, Swedish Medical Center Seattle and IssaquahSeizures occur in some patients with neurosarcoidosis, and they even may be the presenting manifestation of the condition (22,226,274-276). The seizures tend to be of the generalized tonic-clonic variety in most patients, although partial, psychomotor, and myoclonic seizures also occur (229).
302 Walsh & Hoyt:SeizuresValérie Biousse, MD Departments of Ophthalmology and Neurology, Emory University School of MedicineMost seizures occur at the onset of intracerebral hemorrhage or within the first 24 hours (819,820). Anticonvulsants can usually be discontinued after the first month in patients who have had no further seizures. Patients who have a seizure more than two weeks after the onset of an intracerebral hem...
303 Walsh & Hoyt: SeizuresValérie Biousse, MD Departments of Ophthalmology and Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine
304 Walsh & Hoyt: Occipital SeizuresSteven L. Galetta, MD, NYU LangoneSeizures occur in about 15-20% of patients with SLE (667). The seizures are usually of the grand mal type but may be of the petit mal, temporal lobe, focal, and jacksonian variety (642,668-670). Seizures may antedate the onset of SLE, be among its first signs, or develop during the course of the ill...
305 Walsh & Hoyt: Staphylococcus Epidermidis and Other Coagulase-Negative StaphylococciPrem S Subramanian, MD, PhD, ‚ÄčProfessor of Ophthalmology, Neurology, and Neurosurgery, University of Colorado
306 Walsh & Hoyt: Ataxia Telangiectasia (Ch. 47)Parashkev Nachev, PhD, MRCP(UK), University College London; Christopher Kennard, PhD, FRCP, FMed Sci, University of OxfordAtaxia telangiectasia (AT) belongs to a group of inherited conditions, known as the genomic instability syndromes, that are characterized by vulnerability to genetic damage. It is an autosomal-recessive disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding ATM, a phosphatidylinositol kinase that is cent...
307 ATAXIA-TELANGIECTASIAJohn Kerrison, MD, Retina Consultants of CharlestonAtaxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is characterized byoculocutaneous telangiectasia, progressive cerebellar ataxia, recurrent sinopulmonaryinfections, hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation, and a high incidence of lymphoreticular neoplasms (37,686-690). The syndrome is widely distributed, both geographica...
308 Walsh & Hoyt: WYBURN-MASON SYNDROMEJohn Kerrison, MD, Retina Consultants of CharlestonIsolated ateriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the retina are rare (743,744) (Fig. 38.76). Theywere first described byMagnus in 1874 and were regarded for manyy ears as a simple ophthalmologic curiosity. In 1930, however, Yates and Paine described an extensive vascular malformation in for A-T represe...
309 Walsh & Hoyt: STURGE-WEBER SYNDROME (ENCEPHALOTRIGEMINAL ANGIOMATOSIS)John Kerrison, MD, Retina Consultants of CharlestonThe two chief components of this syndrome are a cutaneous hemifacial angioma that usuallystops at the midline and an ipsilateral angioma of the leptomeninges and brain. Other manifestations include partial seizures (83%), glaucoma (60%), and other neurologic deficits (65%) (611).
310 Walsh & Hoyt: Neurofibromatosis NF-1John B. Kerrison, MD, Retina Consultants of Charleston; David Holck, MD, FACS Oculoplastic Surgery & Cosmetic Surgery; John C. Morrison, MD, Professor of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, OSHU; Kurt Andreason, MDNF1 is one of the most common autosomal-dominant disorders. Artistic illustrations of the disease date back to the Middle Ages (4). Recognition as a distinct entityoccurred with the report of von Recklinghausen in 1882. Since then, NF1 has been recognized to have protean manifestations that are char...
311 Walsh & Hoyt: NeurofibromatosisJohn Kerrison, MD, Retina Consultants of CharlestonClinical and genetic studies had for some time suggested two forms of neurofibromatosis. In 1988, a panel of specialists adopted a classification of the two types (Table 38.1) (2). The genes for each form were subsequentlycloned. Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), the most common type, was formerlycall...
312 Walsh & Hoyt: TUBEROUS SCLEROSISJohn Kerrison, MD, Retina Consultants of CharlestonRecognition of tuberous sclerosis as a specific disease involving multiple organs developed slowly. In 1835, Rayer featured the distinctive facial papules in an atlas of dermatology. These were subsequentlydescribed in detail byAddison and Gull (357). In 1863, von Recklinghausen first described the ...
313 Walsh & Hoyt: VON HIPPEL-LINDAU DISEASE (ANGIOMATOSIS OF THE RETINA AND CEREBELLUM)John Kerrison, MD, Retina Consultants of CharlestonThe term ‘‘von Hippel-Lindau disease'' is generallyapplied to patients with multisystem disease. Application to patients with an isolated retinal, intracranial, or visceral lesion depends on familyhistory or confirmatorygenetic testing. Most importantly, comprehensive screening for systemic tumo...
314 Optic Disc Anatomy, Variants, and Usual DiscsKathleen B. Digre, MD, Professor of Neurology and Ophthalmology, Director of Neuro-Ophthalmology, John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah School of MedicineExamination of optic disc, disc anatomy, disc variation
315 Papilledema 2013Kathleen B. Digre, MD, Professor of Neurology and Ophthalmology, Director of Neuro-Ophthalmology, John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah School of MedicineObjectives: What types of disc findings can be confused for papilledema List the features of true disc swelling Describe the tests you would order to evaluate and w/u papilledema List differential diagnosis of papilledema Describe possible treatments for papilledema (medical and surgical)
316 Tonic PupilAdesina, Ore-Ofe, MD; Clinical Assistant Professor, Department of Ophthalmology & Visual Science, University of Texas, Health Sciences Center at HoustonPowerPoint presentation covering tonic pupil, which is damage to ciliary ganglion or short posterior ciliary nerves. It causes denervation of the ciliary body and iris sphincter muscle.
317 Radiological Examination of the Visual SystemJohn Pula, MD; NorthShore University; Glenview, IL
318 Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI)John Pula, MD; NorthShore University; Glenview, ILDiffusion weighted imaging sequences are often included as part of a routine brain MRI protocol. Imaging provides examples of DWI.
319 Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI)John Pula, MD; NorthShore University; Glenview, ILDiffusion tensor (DT) MRI applies the direction of water diffusion through tissues to map out neural pathways in the brain, such as white matter tracts.
320 Vision and Alzheimer's DiseaseVictoria S. Pelak, M.D. Associate Professor of Neurology University of Colorado Health Sciences Center
321 DOUBLING OF THE OPTIC DISCMichael C. Brodsky, MD, Mayo Health SystemDoubling of the optic discs is a rare anomaly in which two optic discs are seen ophthalmoscopically and presumed to be associated with a duplication or separation of the distal optic nerve into two fasciculi (403). Collier (404) described a case and reviewed eight such reports in the literature. Alt...
322 Ophthalmoscopic Appearance of Buried Disc DrusenMichael C. Brodsky, MD, Mayo Health SystemDrusen buried within the tissue of the disc produce moderate elevation of the surface of the disc, as well as blurring of its margins with the following features (Fig. 3.32):
323 Visible disc drusenMichael C. Brodsky, MD, Mayo Health SystemVisible disc drusen. Note multiple white nodules lining the periphery of the discs and abnormal branching of retinal vessels.
324 Association of morning glory disc anomaly with the transsphenoidal form of basal encephaloceleMichael C. Brodsky, MD, Mayo Health SystemThe association of morning glory disc anomaly with the transsphenoidal form of basal encephalocele is well established (174,177,186-191). The finding of V- or tongueshaped infrapapillary depigmentation adjacent to a morning glory disc anomaly or other optic disc malformation (Fig. 3.9B) is highly as...
325 Systematic Associations With Optic Disc DrusenMichael C. Brodsky, MD, Mayo Health SystemRetinitis pigmentosa-globular excrescences of the optic nerve head-are occasionally seen in patients with this condition (576-579). Spencer (483) emphasized that although the drusen associated with retinitis pigmentosa may arise within the optic disc, they more often lie just off the disc margin in ...
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