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1 The internal carotid arteries and branchesKatherine Hutchins, MD, Neurology Resident, Indiana University School of Medicine and Devin D. Mackay, MD, Associate Professor of Neurology, Ophthalmology, and Clinical Neurosurgery, Director of Neuro-Ophthalmology, Indiana University School of MedicineIllustrations, MRA, CTA, and cerebral angiography images of the internal carotid artery and its branches.
2 The vertebrobasilar systemKatherine Hutchins, MD, Neurology Resident, Indiana University School of Medicine and Devin D. Mackay, MD, Associate Professor of Neurology, Ophthalmology, and Clinical Neurosurgery, Director of Neuro-Ophthalmology, Indiana University School of MedicineIllustrations, MRA, and CTA images of the vertebrobasilar system and branches.
3 Finger to Nose PerimetryJohn Pula, MD, NorthShore University Health SystemA description of the use of the finger to nose perimetry test is covered.
4 The Slit Lamp ExaminationSovik De Sirkar, MSIII; Ore-ofe Adesina, MD, Clinical Assistant Professor, Department of Ophthalmology & Visual Science, McGovern Medical School, University of TexasThis is a comprehensive description of the slit lamp examination.
5 Pituitary Tumor (Portuguese)NANOSPituitary tumors are benign (non-cancerous) overgrowth of cells that make up the pituitary gland (the master gland that regulates other glands in the body).
6 Optic Neuritis (Portuguese)NANOSIn the most common form of optic neuritis, the optic nerve has been attacked by the body's overactive immune system and results in decreased vision.
7 Transient Visual Loss (Portuguese)NANOSAbout transient visual loss.
8 Photophobia (Portuguese)NANOSThe symptoms of light sensitivity are: an uncomfortable sense of brightness, squinting, frequent blinking, and redness of the eye (especially if the eye is dry). Involuntary eye closure and excessive blinking is seen with blepharospasm. Individuals will tend to seclude themselves in darkness.
9 Myasthenia Gravis (Portuguese)NANOSThis is an autoimmune condition where the body's immune system has damaged receptors on your muscles and can result in double vision or drooping lid.
10 Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (Portuguese)NANOSAbout Progressive Supranuclear Palsy.
11 Optic Nerve Sheath Meningioma (Portuguese)NANOSAbout optic nerve sheath meningioma.
12 Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy (Portuguese)NANOSLoss of blood supply to the optic nerve results in diminished visual acuity.
13 Anisocoria (Portuguese)NANOSPupil in the right eye and left eye are not the same size.
14 Blepharoespasm (Portuguese)NANOSUncontrolled blinking, squeezing, and eyelid closure that occurs in both eyes without an apparent environmental cause.
15 Dry Eye Syndrome (Portuguese)NANOSPeople with abnormalities of the tear film are diagnosed with "dry eyes", but some patients with "dry eyes" may not feel that their eyes are "dry". Itching, burning, a scratchy sensation, a sensation that there is sand or grit in the eye, or intermittent blurring of the vision can all be symptoms of...
16 Homonymous Hemianopia (Portuguese)NANOSThis refers to an absence of vision towards one side of the visual world in each eye. The damage that caused this problem is in the brain and not in the eyes.
17 Idiopatic Intracranial Hypertension (Portuguese)NANOSRaised intracranial pressure.
18 Microvascular Nerve Palsy (Portuguese)NANOSMicrovascular cranial nerve palsy is one of the most common causes of double vision in the older poulation. They are often referred to as "diabetic" palsies. They will resolve without leaving any double vision.
19 Migraine Enxaqueca (Portuguese)NANOSHeadache on one or both sides of the brain, and may include symptoms of nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light.
20 Meniere Disease (Portuguese)NANOSAbout Meniere disease.
21 Hemifacial Spasm (Portuguese)NANOSInvoluntary contractions, called "spasms," of the muscles on one side of the face. The affected side of the face seems to "scrunch up" while the other side of the face remains normal.
22 Eyelid Myokymia (Portuguese)NANOSExcessive or anomalous eyelid closure.
23 Optic Disc Drusen (Portuguese)NANOSOptic disc drusen are abnormal deposits of protein-like material in the optic disc - the front part of the optic nerve.
24 Skew Deviation and the Ocular Tilt ResponseDavid Newman-Toker, MD, PhD, Associate Professor, Departments of Neurology, Ophthalmology, & Otolaryngology, The Johns Hopkins University School of MedicineThe objectives of this presentation are to provide an understanding of the current use of the terms "ocular tilt reaction" and "skew deviation," to create some familiarity with the anatomic and physiologic substrate of ocular tilt and skew, and to demonstrate how to distinguish between skew and isol...
25 The Ice Pack Test For MyastheniaRyan D. Walsh, MD, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Department of Neurology, Medical College of Wisconsin; Collin McClelland, MD, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Neurosciences. University of MinnesotaThe ice pack test is a simple, low-tech, bedside test that can readily be applied in the outpatient clinic or hospital setting, with minimal risk or discomfort. The ice pack test is used in patients with ptosis to help support or refute a diagnosis of myasthenia. We describe how to perform and int...
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