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1 + HIT, + Skew, Unidirectional Nystagmus: Central Acute Vestibular Syndrome Due to Wallenberg SyndromeThis is a 45-year-old woman who presented to the ED with acute prolonged vertigo and vertical diplopia. She was seen as an outpatient 1 month after her ED visit, and double vision and balance were improving by that time. Her HINTS testing showed the following (seen in the video): 1) Head Impulse - A...VOR HIT Abnormal; Abnormal Alignment; Skew; Jerk Nystagmus; Vestibular Nystagmus; Acute Vestibular Nystagmus
2 Abnormal Head Impulse Test in Vestibular Neuritis 1 Week After OnsetThis is a 25-year-old woman who experienced the acute vestibular syndrome due to right-sided vestibular neuritis 1 week prior to this video. Left-beating nystagmus (LBN) was only noted in left gaze, but with fixation-removed, there was clear LBN in primary position that increased with head-shaking a...Abnormal VOR; Vestibulocochlear Nerve; Acute Vestibular Sydrome
3 Acute Vestibular Neuritis With Unidirectional Nystagmus and Abnormal Video Head Impulse TestThis is 45-year-old man who presented to the emergency department (ED) 2 days prior to this video recording with acute onset prolonged vertigo, nausea, head motion intolerance, unsteadiness and spontaneous nystagmus, consistent with the acute vestibular syndrome. Video-oculography examination in the...Jerk Nystagmus; Acute Vestibular Syndrome; Vestibular Nystagmus; Eighth Nerve; Abnormal VOR-HIT
4 Acute Vestibular Syndrome With Skew Deviation and Positive Head Impulse Test Due to a Demyelinating LesionThis is a patient who initially presented with the acute vestibular syndrome (AVS, e.g., acute prolonged vertigo, spontaneous nystagmus). ; See https://collections.lib.utah.edu/details?id=187730 for additional history. ; Her HINTS (Head Impulse, Nystagmus, Test of Skew) testing indicated a central e...VOR HIT; Alignment; Acute Vestibular
5 Central Acute Vestibular Syndrome Due to Posterior Fossa HemorrhageThis is a patient presenting with the acute vestibular syndrome (AVS, e.g., acute prolonged vertigo, spontaneous nystagmus) whose HINTS (Head Impulse, Nystagmus, Test of Skew) testing indicated a central etiology based on negative (normal) head impulse testing (HIT). Nystagmus was unidirectional and...VOR HIT; Alignment; Jerk Nystagmus; Vestibular Nystagmus; Acute Vestibular
6 Central HINTS (With an Abnormal Head Impulse Sign) in the Acute Vestibular Syndrome Due to Lateral Pontine/Middle Cerebellar Peduncle DemyelinationThis is a 30-year-old man presenting with vertigo, diplopia and mild left facial weakness (not seen in the video). On exam, there was right-beating nystagmus (RBN) in primary gaze that increased in right gaze (in accordance with Alexander's law), and the RBN stayed unidirectional, but lessened, in l...Abnormal Alignment; Vestibulocochlear; OMS Pons; Rotary Nystagmus; Vestibular Nystagmus; Acute Vestibular Nystagmus; Jerk Nystagmus; VOR HIT Abnormal
7 Complete peripheral vestibulopathy & ipsilateral facial palsy60-yo-man who suffered the fairly abrupt onset (over hours) of right lower motor neuron facial nerve palsy (7th cranial nerve), vertigo and deafness in the right ear (8th cranial nerve). Vesicles were noted on otoscopy, and herpes zoster infection (Ramsay Hunt) was diagnosed. Whereas many cases of "...Ramsay Hunt; Facial nerve palsy; Vestibulocochlear nerve palsy; Vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR)
8 Demonstration of HINTS examination in a normal subjectIn the acute vestibular syndrome - consisting of acute prolonged vertigo, spontaneous nystagmus, imbalance, nausea/vomiting, head motion intolerance which is typically due to vestibular neuritis or posterior fossa stroke - a 3 step test of ocular motor and vestibular function known as HINTS, has hig...Acute Vestibular; Normal VOR; Vertigo; HINTS examination
9 HINTS Exam and Saccadic Dysmetria in Lateral Medullary StrokeThis is a 50-year-old who experienced the abrupt onset of prolonged vertigo following chiropractic therapy 2 months prior. Initial work-up included an MRI and MR angiogram - MR-diffusion weighted imaging showed an acute left lateral medullary stroke and left vertebral artery occlusion, which was tho...Abnormal Saccades, Acute Vestibular Syndrome, Jerk Nystagmus, Vestibular Nystagmus, Normal VOR, Skew Deviation, OMS Medulla
10 Head-Shaking-Induced Nystagmus Following Ramsay Hunt VestibulopathyThis is a 50-year-old man who experienced the abrupt onset of imbalance, dizziness and left-sided hearing loss 4 months prior to this examination. He was found to have herpetic vesicles in the left external auditory canal and diagnosed with Ramsay Hunt syndrome. On exam (4 months after the onset), t...Vestibular Nystagmus; Head-Shaking; Jerk Nystagmus; Vestibularcochlear; Acute Vestibular Syndrome
11 Impaired Smooth Pursuit and Other Characteristic Ocular Motor Findings in Middle Cerebellar Peduncle StrokeThis is a 50-year-old woman who underwent resection of a left-sided acoustic neuroma, and post-operatively, she had vertigo, binocular diplopia, left hemi-ataxia and severe gait ataxia. MR diffusion weighted imaging demonstrated an acute stroke involving the left middle cerebellar peduncle (MCP) and...Abnormal Pursuit; VOR-HIT Abnormal; Abnormal Alignment; Vestibulocochlear Nerve; OMS Pons; Jerk Nystagmus; Gaze-Evoked Nystagmus; Bruns Nystagmus; Vestibular Nystagmus; Acute Vestibular Syndrome
12 Lateral pontine stroke involving the superior vestibular nucleus causing spontaneous upbeat-torsional nystagmusA 65-year-old man presented to the emergency department with spontaneous vertigo and unsteadiness, and had was noted to have spontaneous upbeat nystagmus (UBN), also with a torsional component (top poles beating toward the right ear) that was most noticeable in right and up gaze. General neurologic ...Jerk Nystagmus; Upbeat Nystagmus; Torsional Nystagmus; Pons; Acute Vestibular Syndrome
13 Medial medullary syndromesThis is a video of two patients who suffered small strokes involving the right medial medulla, and who presented with acute vertigo and oscillopsia. The first patient in the video had pure upbeat nystagmus, while the second patient had upbeat-torsional (towards the right ear) nystagmus in addition t...Medulla; Jerk Nystagmus; Upbeat Nystagmus; Gaze Evoked Nystagmus; Vestibular Nystagmus; Acute Vestibular
14 Neuro-Ophthalmic Features and Pseudo-MG Lid Signs in Miller Fisher SyndromeThis is a 51-year-old woman who presented with imbalance, acute onset dizziness and diplopia that developed over three days following two weeks of upper respiratory infection and bacterial conjunctivitis. When she was initially seen as an outpatient, nystagmus was noted to the right and left, and a ...Abnormal VOR; Miller Fisher Syndrome; Myasthenia Gravis; Acute Vestibular Syndrome; Jerk Nystagmus; Gaze Evoked Nystagmus
15 Test Your Knowledge - Acute Prolonged VertigoThis is a 60-year old man with diabetes presenting with acute onset prolonged vertigo that was ongoing at the time of this examination. Which of the following statements are true with regard to the localization and/or etiology of this patient's symptoms? A. Whether or not symptoms worsen with head ...Abnormal Alignment; Jerk Nystagmus; Vestibular Nystagmus; Acute Vestibular Syndrome; Video Head Impulse Test
16 Test Your Knowledge - The Acute Vestibular Syndrome and PtosisWhat is the most likely localization in this patient presenting with vertical diplopia and acute onset prolonged vertigo? A. Right medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) B. Left medial longitudinal fasciculus C. Right medulla D. Left medulla E. Left midbrain A. Incorrect. A right MLF lesion (stroke, M...Jerk Nystagmus; Acute Vestibular Syndrome; Vestibular Nystagmus; Skew Deviation; Upbeat Nystagmus; Torsional Nystagmus; Rotary Nystagmus; Horner Syndrome
17 Test Your Knowledge - Vertical-Torsional NystagmusQuestion #1: Watch the first portion of the video until you are told to stop. Is this vestibular nystagmus more likely to be peripheral or central? A. Peripheral B. Central Answer for #1: A. Incorrect. While the patient has upbeat-torsional (top poles beating toward the right ear) nystagmus which is...Jerk Nystagmus; Rotary Nystagmus; Upbeat Nystagmus; INO; Skew; Abnormal Alignment; Abnormal Saccades; Vestibular Nystagmus; Acute Vestibular Syndrome
18 Test Your Knowledge: The Acute Vestibular Syndrome with Gaze-Evoked Nystagmus and Bilaterally Abnormal Head Impulse Testing Due to Middle Cerebellar Peduncle and Flocculus HemorrhageThis is a 70-year-old woman with a history of atrial fibrillation on warfarin presenting with acute prolonged vertigo and imbalance. In addition to the findings demonstrated in the first part of the video, what else should be seen to reassure the examiner that the etiology of her vertigo is benign? ...Abnormal VOR; Jerk Nystagmus; Acute Vestibular Syndrome; Cerebellar OMS; Gaze Evoked Nystagmus
19 The Episodic Vestibular SyndromeThis is a 55-year-old man with 6 months of episodic vertigo without clear triggers/provocative factors, with each of his 3 previous episodes lasting less than 5 minutes. While in the clinic, he had one of his typical vertigo attacks. There was initially 30 seconds of right-beating-torsional nystagmu...Jerk Nystagmus; Acute Vestibular Syndrome
20 The acute vestibular syndrome in MS due to middle cerebellar peduncle/root entry zone lesionThis is a 13 year-old girl with relatively abrupt onset vertigo and oscillopsia. On exam, there was primarily right-beating nystagmus in primary gaze with a slight upward (upbeat) component, giving the nystagmus an oblique appearance. The upward component and lack of a clear torsional component acut...Jerk nystagmus; Vestibular nystagmus; Vestibulo-ocular reflex; Head impulse testing; Gaze-evoked nystagmus
21 The acute vestibular syndrome with dysarthria, dysphagia, dysphonia, hemi-ataxia, and saccadic dysmetria due to the lateral medullary (Wallenberg) syndromeThis is a 50-year-old woman with the acute onset of vertigo, dysarthria, dysphagia and dysphonia/hoarseness (nucleus ambiguus), ptosis and imbalance. Her examination localized to a left lateral medullary (Wallenberg) syndrome - there was decreased sensation on the left side of the face (spinal trige...Acute Vestibular Syndrome, Ninth Nerve, OMS Medulla, Abnormal Saccades, Tenth Nerve, Lateropulsion, Horner Syndrome
22 The acute vestibular syndrome with skew deviation, gaze-evoked nystagmus, and bilaterally abnormal head impulse testing due to AICA strokeThis is a 60-year-old man with the acute onset of prolonged vertigo and nystagmus, consistent with the acute vestibular syndrome (AVS). HINTS (Head Impulse, Nystagmus, Test of Skew) exam demonstrated a central pattern: 1) Head impulse test (HIT) was abnormal to the right and to the left. An abnormal...Abnormal VOR-HIT, Abnormal Alignment, Skew, Jerk Nystagmus, Gaze Evoked Nystagmus, Acute Vestibular Syndrome, Seventh Nerve, OMS Pons, OMS Cerebellar
23 Unidirectional nystagmus in lateral medullary syndromeThis is a 70-yo-man who presented with acute vertigo. Examination demonstrated very mild spontaneous torsional nystagmus (towards the right ear) in primary (not seen well in this video), with robust downbeat-torsional (towards right ear) nystagmus in right gaze and (less robust) almost pure torsiona...Medula, Rotary Nystagmus, Jerk Nystagmus, Acute Vestibula, Vestibular Nystagmus, Abnormal Saccades
24 Unidirectional vestibular nystagmus60-yo-man with recurrent vertigo attacks - this video was taken during one of his typical attacks, and shows left-beating nystagmus that stayed left-beating in all directions of gaze, more in left gaze (in accordance with Alexander's Law), and less in right gaze. This pattern is more commonly seen w...Jerk nystagmus; Vestibular nystagmus; Vestibulo-ocular reflex; Head impulse testing; Benign recurrent vertigo; Migraine variant
25 Vestibular Neuritis with + Head Impulse Test and Unidirectional NystagmusVestibular neuritis is the most common cause of the acute vestibular syndrome, which is characterized by continuous vertigo and spontaneous nystagmus lasting days. It may be mimicked by central causes, including stroke, but in the hands of subspecialists, the HINTS+ (Head Impulse, Nystagmus, Test o...Jerk Nystagmus; Acute Vestibular; Vestibular Nystagmus
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