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1 Oscillopsia and bilateral vestibular loss with gentamicin ototoxicityPatients with bilateral vestibular loss commonly experience oscillopsia with head movements, or an inability to stabilize retinal images with subsequent bouncing or jumping of the environment due to loss of vestibular function. This causes significant blurring of vision and disorientation, dizziness...Image/MovingImage
2 Monocular downbeat nystagmus due to a posterior fossa cystThis is a 40-yo-man who experienced months of imbalance and was found to have an epidermoid cyst (immediately posterior to the 4th ventricle), which was resected. Months after surgery, he experienced monocular vertical oscillopsia. On examination, there was subtle downbeat nystagmus (DBN) in the rig...Image/MovingImage
3 Leukemic leptomeningeal carcinomatosis causing 4th and 6th nerve palsiesThis is a 55-yo-man with CML that recurred as AML. Diagonal diplopia developed, and on examination he was found to have a partial right 6th nerve palsy, in addition to a left hypertropia that increased in right gaze, down gaze, and in left head tilt consistent with a left 4th nerve palsy. There was ...Image/MovingImage
4 Divergence insufficiency in cerebellar ataxiaThis is a 65-yo woman with complaints of imbalance (progressive over years) and horizontal diplopia at distance. On her exam, there was a small symptomatic esotropia at distance, but only a small esophoria at near. There were no obvious abduction deficits, and the 6 prism diopter ET at distance was...Image/MovingImage
5 Examples of patients with saccadic intrusions (square wave jerks)Seen here are patients with saccadic intrusions that do have an intersaccadic interval. Square wave jerks are commonly seen in degenerative conditions, mainly involving the posterior fossa (e.g., cerebellar degeneration) and basal ganglia (e.g., progressive supranuclear palsy).Image/MovingImage
6 Nystagmus due to paraneoplastic (anti-Yo) brainstem and cerebellar degenerationThis is a 40-yo-woman with anti-Yo antibody associated with ovarian cancer. Initial symptoms 2.5 years prior (to this video) included imbalance and dysarthria. She complained of oscillopsia which was due to her upbeat nystagmus (presumably the result of brainstem involvement), and diplopia (she had ...Image/MovingImage
7 Opsoclonus provoked by convergenceThis is a 40-yo-man with post-infectious opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. Opsoclonus was intermittently evident in primary position, but was consistently provoked (and intensified) by convergence. Occasionally, opsoclonus (back-to-back saccades in horizontal, vertical, torsional planes without an inte...Image/MovingImage
8 Pendular nystagmus and vision lossThree patients are presented here, each with poor vision (counting fingers or worse) related to retinitis pigmentosa in one patient (Usher's syndrome) and optic neuropathy in two patients, each of whom developed pendular nystagmus after vision loss developed. Visually mediated movements normally pre...Image/MovingImage
9 Pontine hemorrhage causing oculopalatal tremor and multiple cranial neuropathiesThis is a 45-yo-woman who had a dorsal pontine cavernoma that bled 2 years prior to this video. Symptoms included diplopia and oscillopsia. On examination, she had left>right facial palsies (upper and lower face from involvement of the nucleus/fascicle - i.e., lower motor neuron palsies) and sixth n...Image/MovingImage
10 Duane's syndrome type 3This is a 40-yo-woman seen in neurology clinic for a complaint unrelated to her eyes. On exam, there was impaired adduction and abduction OS. In adduction, there was narrowing of the palpebral fissure OS, a result of her globe retraction due to co-contraction of the medial and lateral rectus muscles...Image/MovingImage
11 ConvergenceCan bring out or change the direction of vertical nystagmus in Wernicke's, or cerebellar disease; may be impaired in Parkinson's disease, head trauma, elderly patients; may overcome an adduction deficit with an INO. Instructional ocular motor examination procedures.Image/MovingImage
12 Ocular AlignmentThese tests allow for detection of eso-, exo- or hyperdeviations (phorias (one eye viewing) or tropias (both eyes viewing) that can be seen with ocular motor palsy, skew deviation, or with cerebellar disease (commonly esodeviation greater at distance) Instructional ocular motor examination procedure...Image/MovingImage
13 SaccadesThe examiner should note: conjugacy (a lag of the adducting eye may be seen with an INO); accuracy (posterior fossa lesions commonly produce dysmetria (overshooting or undershooting); velocity (if slow, may suggest a lesion of the burst neurons in the pons [PPRF - horizontally] or midbrain [riMLF - ...Image/MovingImage
14 Smooth PursuitA pursuit deficit in one direction suggests an ipsilesional localization, but beware of a superimposed spontaneous nystagmus; a pursuit deficit in all directions is commonly seen with cerebellar lesionsImage/MovingImage
15 VOR (Slow and Fast)Slow vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR): Since smooth pursuit and VOR systems are both active, if eye movements are choppy with this maneuver this implies deficits in both pursuit and the vestibular system as in CANVAS; Fast (HIT): Since smooth pursuit fails at high frequencies and high speeds, the VOR i...Image/MovingImage
16 Range of Eye Movements and Evaluation for NystagmusRange: Assesses for motility deficit due to an ocular motor palsy, particularly if a posterior fossa localization is being considered; Nystagmus: Spontaneous nystagmus may or may not be noted and gaze-evoked nystagmus is common with posterior fossa lesions; nystagmus that is unidirectional in all di...Image/MovingImage
17 VOR (Suppression)Deficits in pursuit and vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR)S usually go together, except when the VOR is absent or markedly diminished in which case there is no VOR to suppress, so that VORS seems better than pursuit. This is an important clue that the VOR is diminished. Instructional ocular motor examina...Image/MovingImage
18 Abnormal visually-enhanced VOR in cerebellar ataxia, neuropathy, vestibular areflexia syndrome (CANVAS)A 67 year old woman presented with 1 year of progressive numbness, gait instability, and oscillopsia when walking or with head movements. Examination showed excessive square-wave jerks, bilateral horizontal gaze-evoked nystagmus, impairment of the visually-enhanced vestibular ocular reflex (vVOR - s...Image/MovingImage
19 Eyelid retraction, pseudoabducens and upgaze palsy due to a mesodiencephalic hemorrhageThis is a 70-yo-man who suffered a right midline thalamic/rostral midbrain hemorrhagic stroke causing a pretectal (Parinaud's) syndrome. There was prominent eyelid retraction (Collier's sign), a left pseudo-abducens, and upgaze palsy with convergence retraction nystagmus. There was no light-near dis...Image/MovingImage
20 Vertical gaze palsy and saccadic intrusions due to anti-Ri from head and neck carcinomaA 55-yo- woman was admitted for imbalance and double vision. Three weeks prior to presentation she first noticed swelling on the right side of her face and neck. CT of the head and neck showed right-sided cervical adenopathy and enlarged left retropharyngeal node. Ultrasound- guided biopsy of the n...Image/MovingImage
21 Parinaud's syndrome in a man with GBM of the pineal glandThis is a 60-yo-man who presented with diplopia, headaches, and difficulty looking up, and was found to have a mass involving the pineal gland. Biopsy was diagnostic of a GBM. Major features of Parinaud's (dorsal midbrain) syndrome were present including: upgaze palsy, convergence retraction nystagm...Image/MovingImage
22 Apraclonidine testing in Horner's syndromeThis patient experienced relatively abrupt ptosis and was seen and diagnosed with a Horner's syndrome within a few days of the onset. There were no other exam findings and history did not offer clues as to the etiology. Neuroimaging of the oculosympathetic tract was unrevealing. Apraclonidine testin...Image/MovingImage
23 Congenital nystagmusPresented here are two patients with congenital nystagmus demonstrating characteristic features including: mixed pendular and jerk nystagmus (usually gaze-evoked) waveforms, stays horizontal even in vertical gaze, suppression with convergence, strabismus and a latent component (common but not always...Image/MovingImage
24 Monocular horizontal pendular nystagmus in MSBoth of these patients have MS and monocular (OS) horizontal pendular nystagmus. The first patient seen in the video has normal afferent function and no evidence of optic nerve disease in either eye, while the second patient has severe OS>>OD optic nerve disease related to bouts of optic neuritis (t...Image/MovingImage
25 Post-infectious ocular flutter and myoclonus syndromeThis is a 35-yo-woman presenting with oscillopsia following a viral illness. She described being easily startled, with "shakiness" of the head/neck and body. She had myoclonus and ocular flutter, with the latter evident when she initiated saccades. Eye movement recordings showed that most of her sac...Image/MovingImage
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