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1 Role of Hox genes in mediating the mammalian body planThis is a 1 hour, 5 minutes, 28 seconds video of a lecture given by Mario Capecchi on the genetic analysis of the Hox complex, or Hox cluster and their role in embryogenesis. Using examples such as the development of the hindbrain (rhombencephalon), facial nerves, and hands Capecchi outlines the re...Transgenic mice; Gene targeting; Genetic engineering; Molecular genetics; Homeobox genes; Histology - Pathological; Gene expression; Gene regulation; Genotype; Phenotype
2 Secret of life module: on the brink, four profiles in groundbreaking scienceThis is a 15 minutes, 12 seconds segment of the WGBH series, Secret of life. Profiles include Dennis Slamon of UCLA and his work on the oncagenes and the creation of excess receptors that play a significant role in breast cancer; Patricia Steeg of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and her work on...Transgenic mice; Gene targeting; Genetic engineering; Molecular genetics; Cancer - Research; Capecchi, Mario R.; Science - Moral and ethical aspects; Human chromosome abnormalities - Diagnosis; Gene expression; Gene regulation
3 N-formylmethionyl-sRNA as the initiator of protein synthesis.A bizarre fast about Nterminal groups of bacterial proteins. Instead of a random mixture, that the great majority of N-terminal groups were either methionine or alanine. This finding suggested that methionine and alanine constituted start signals for the initiation of polypeptide chains. Alternative...Electrophoresis; Formates; In Vitro; Methionine1966-01-01
4 Initiation of E. coli proteins.Recent experiments and theoretical arguments suggest that formylmethionyl sRNA is employed as an initiator of protein synthesis. Studies also indicated that other phage proteins synthesized in the in vitro system were initiated with formylmethionine. These observations provided a basis for believin...Alanine; Chromatography, Paper; Dipeptides1966-06
5 Protein synthesis directed by DNA phage messengers.Even through the amino acids corresponding to most of the 64 nucleotide triplets are now known, several important aspects of the genetic code are not yet fully understood. In particular we need more knowledge about the "punctuation marks" of the code-for example, the signals necessary for the initia...Carbon Isotopes; Escherichia coli; Genetic Code; Methionine1967-09-01
6 Polypeptide chain termination in vitro: isolation of a release factor.The growing polypeptide chain remains bound to the ribosome-messenger RNA complex through the sRNA carrying the last amino acid incorporated into the polypeptide chain.' On completion of the polypeptide chain a mechanism must exist for releasing it from the protein-synthesizing machinery. To date, m...Carbon Isotopes; Phenylalanine; Proteins1967-09-01
7 Translation of Rl7 RNA fragmentsExamination of the events during infection of cells by RNA phages reveals phemonomena that are surprisingly complex for a virus that has only enough information to code for three to four proteins. The coat protein is synthesized at a rapid rate through most of the infectious cycle making it the pre...Electrophoresis; RNA, Messenger; Peptide Biosynthesis; Kinetics1969
8 Characterization of lysozyme messenger and lysozyme synthesized in vitroIn vitro systems for protein systhesis have been in wide use for about 10 years. In most of the early work protein synthesis was measured by following the incorporation of radioactive amino acids into acid precipitable material. This test cannot distinguish between the synthesis of complete, activ...Lysozyme Messenger; Lysozyme Synthesized; Protein Synthesis1969
9 Characterization of three proteins involved in polypeptide chain termination.At each stage of elongation, the growing polypeptide chain is bound to the ribosome-messenger RNA complex through the transfer RNA of the most recently incorporated amino acid residue. When the chain is complete, the last polypeptide-transfer RNA (tuna) ester linkage is cleaved, releasing the chain ...Anti-Bacterial Agents; Phenylalanine; Stimulation, Chemical1969
10 Polypetide chain termination. Purification of the release factors, R1 and R2, from Escherichia coli.We have extensively purified the release factors RI and Rz from Escherichia coli. These proteins can each mediate polypeptide chain termination. The physiological substrate for this reaction is a completed polypeptide chain in a peptidyl- transfer RNA-messenger RNA-ribosome complex. The reaction con...Acrylates; Detergents1971-02-25
11 Pattern of protein synthesis in monkey cells infected by simian virus 40After infection of several permanent monkey cell lines by simian virus 40 (SV40), four additional protein bands can be detected by simple sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of whole-cell extracts. These bands appear only after the onset of viral deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) syn...Monkeys; Simian virus 40; Peptides; DNA, Viral/biosynthesis1972
12 Processing of adenovirus 2-induced proteinsAnalysis of (35)S-methionine-labeled extracts of adenovirus 2-infected KB cells revealed 22 virus-induced polypeptide components. Most proteins of the virion were easily detected in extracts of whole cells labeled for short periods between 15 and 30 h after infection; however, several virion compone...Adenoviridae; Viral Proteins; Protein Precursors; Methionine; Mouth Neoplasms1973
13 Altered enzymes in drug-resistant variants of mammalian tissue culture cells.Two selective procedures are compared in an effort to isolate variants of mouse L cells containing structural gene mutations. Among the resulting variant cloned cell lines are found two types of alterations in theenzyme hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (EC (1): enzyme with altered ...Drug Resistance; Azaguanine; Clone Cells; Hypoxanthines1973-11
14 Selective degradation of abnormal proteins in mammalian tissue culture cells.The degradation rates of several missense mutants of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (EC in mouse L cells are compared to those of the wild-type enzyme. Although the rates of total protein breakdown in the mutant cell lines are identical to that of the parental L cell line, ...Gene Expression Regulation; Mice, Transgenic; Microscopy, Fluorescence1974-12-01
15 Origin and destiny of adenovirus proteinsLytic infection of human cells by adenovirus proceeds by a temporal expression of genes. Classically two phases have been defined: an early phase, which includes events occurring before the onset of DNA synthesis (8 hours), and a late phase, including events whose existence depends on the onset of...Protein Biosynthesis; DNA, Viral; Adenoviridae; RNA, Viral; Time Factors1975
16 Purification and characterization of mouse hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase.Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPR transferase) (EC has been purified approximately 4500-fold to apparent homogeneity from mouse liver. The procedure involves the use of affinity chromatography and was designed to be readily adaptable to small scale isolations. The enzyme ...Buffers; Centrifugation, Density Gradient; Chromatography, Affinity; Chromatography, Gel; Chromatography, Ion Exchange; Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel1975-01-31
17 Yeast super-suppressors are altered tRNAs capable of translating a nonsense codon in vitro.tRNA isolated from two different yeast super-suppressor strains translates a known nonsense mutation in vitro, whereas tRNA from a closely related nonsuppressing strain does not. Suppression was assayed by translation of RNA isolated from an amber coat mutant of bacteriophage Qbeta (GB11) in a prote...Codon; Escherichia coli; Protein Biosynthesis1975-11
18 Simian virus 40-specific polypeptides in Ad2+ND4- infected cellsA comparison of the proteins synthesized in human cells at late times after infection with adenovirus (Ad2) and with the adeno-simian virus 40 (SV40) hybrid viruses revealed polypeptides of 30,000 and 92,000 molecular weight specific for the hybrid viruses Ad2+ND1 and Ad2+ND4, respectively. Cell-fre...Molecular Weight; Peptide Biosynthesis; RNA, Messenger; Viral Proteins1976
19 High efficiency transformation by direct microinjection of DNA into cultured mammalian cells.Direct microinjection of DNA by glass micropipettes was used to introduce the Herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene into cultured mammalian cells. When DNA was delivered directly into the nuclei of LMTK-, a mouse cell line deficient in thymidine kinase activity, 50--100% of the cells expressed ...Cell Nucleus; Cytoplasm; DNA, Viral; Microinjections; Recombination, Genetic1980-11-22
20 Patterns of integration of DNA microinjected into cultured mammalian cells: evidence for homologous recombination between injected plasmid DNA molecules.We examined the fate of DNA microinjected into nuclei of cultured mammalian cells. The sequence composition and the physical form of the vector carrying the selectable gene affected the efficiency of DNA-mediated transformation. Introduction of sequences near the simian virus 40 origin of DNA replic...Base Sequence; Cell Line; Genes, Viral; Genetic Vectors; Mice; Microinjections1982-11
21 Establishment of mammalian cell lines containing multiple nonsense mutations and functional suppressor tRNA genes.We describe the generation of mammalian cell lines carrying amber suppressor genes. Nonsense mutants in the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV tk) gene, the Escherichia coli xanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (Eco-gpt) gene and the aminoglycoside 3' phosphotransferase gene of the Tn...Cercopithecus aethiops; Escherichia coli; Xenopus1982-11-30
22 Location and function of retroviral and SV40 sequences that enhance biochemical transformation after microinjection of DNA.Biochemical transformation of thymidine-kinase-deficient (TK-) mouse L cells is enhanced 20 to 40 fold when microinjected plasmid DNA contains regions of the genomes of Rous sarcoma virus or simian virus 40 in addition to the complete herpes simplex virus tk gene, irrespective of the orientation and...Animals; Base Sequence; Genes, Viral; Plasmids; Thymidine Kinase1983-07-01
23 Measurement of suppressor transfer RNA activity.Transfer RNA (tRNA) suppression of nonsense mutations in prokaryotic systems has been widely used to study the structure and function of different prokaryotic genes. Through genetic engineering techniques, it is now possible to introduce suppressor (Su+) tRNA molecules into mammalian cells. A quanti...Animals; Cells, Cultured; Eukaryotic Cells; Genes, Viral; Mice; Orthomyxoviridae; Peptide Chain Termination, Translational; Protein Biosynthesis1983-08-26
24 Sociobiology of sex and sexes (comment)A comment on "Sociobiology of sex and sexes" by Marion Blute.Sociobiology; Sex and sexes1984-04
25 Synthesis of an ochre suppressor tRNA gene and expression in mammalian cells.We have used site-specific mutagenesis to change the anticodon of a Xenopus laevis tyrosine tRNA gene so that it would recognize ochre codons. This tRNA gene is expressed when amplified in monkey cells as part of a SV40 recombinant and efficiently suppresses termination at both the ochre codon separ...Xenopus; Nucleic Acid Conformation; Kidney; DNA Restriction Enzymes1984-11
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