||Research in the Minteer group has centered on procedures for immobilizing enzymes and organelles on carbon electrodes for use in sensory and fuel cell applications. Similar strategies have been used to prepare a series of electrodes capable of pyruvate oxidation which, in the presence of arsenic, will be inhibited. These electrodes, when incorporated into a biofiiel cell, will show decreased power output in the presence of arsenic compounds. This inhibition and corresponding power decrease will make it possible to sense the presence of arsenic, allowing for the self-powered detection of it. For the electrodes, three types of bioelectrocatalysts are to be examined: enzymes, mitochondria, and whole cells. This will enable sensitivity and specificity comparisons between the electrode types. Whole-cell electrodes utilizing yeast as a catalyst have been designed and are currently being tested for arsenic sensitivity. Poly-L-lysine immobilization has proven effective for immobilizing yeast onto an electrode while maintaining functionality of the yeast.