Table of Contents
Collection Overview +/-
Collection Inventory +/-
box 1, folder 1: Accreditation self-evaluation study
box 1, folder 2: Budget
box 1, folder 3: Catalog
box 1, folder 4: Correspondence
box 1, folder 5: Curriculum
box 1, folder 6: Equipment purchases
box 1, folder 7: Faculty
box 1, folder 8: Faculty manual
box 1, folder 9: Faculty policies
box 1, folder 10: Felkner study (duplicate)
box 1, folder 11: Felkner study (final)
box 1, folder 12: Felkner study (first version)
box 1, folder 13: Felkner retirement
box 1, folder 14: Flyers
box 1, folder 15: Graduates
box 1, folder 16: Histories
box 1, folder 17: Markroscope (newsletter) (1980)
box 2, folder 1: Master's project
box 2, folder 2: Memoranda
box 2, folder 3: Newspaper clippings
box 2, folder 4: Notes
box 2, folder 5: Proclamation
box 2, folder 6: Publications
box 2, folder 7: Reports
box 2, folder 8: Schedule
box 2, folder 9: Sigma Theta Tau
box 2, folder 10: Students
box 3, folder 1: Memoranda (RESTRICTED ACCESS)
Biographical Note/Historical Note +/-
St. Mark's Hospital opened in 1872 under the direction of the Episcopal Church in a two room adobe house on 500 East and 300 South in Salt Lake City. Two years later it admitted its first patients. The 1879 expansion saw the purchase of land and the erection of a new building with room for fifteen beds to better treat the infirm miner lead poisoning, industrial injuries, and typhoid fever.
St. Marks Hospital School of Nursing: On March 24, 1893, the St. Mark's Hospital Board of Directors authorized the establishment of a training school for nurses in connection with the hospital. In 1894, a new 50-bed St. Mark's hospital opened with a nurses training program at 200 North 700 West. Twenty-three year old, Miss Mary Edith Newitt, a recent graduate of New York City's St. Luke's Training School, served as the head nurse. The first class of four nurses graduated from the two year program in 1896. While St. Mark's Nursing School began as a two-year program, a third year was added in 1898. Between 1892 and 1898, the hospital more than doubled its capacity when it added a new wing to house the surgical, medical, and women's wards.
The nursing students were initially housed in a cottage owned by the hospital on Reed Street, later they lived in the basement of the new wing, and finally they moved into a new three-story residence constructed in 1906. The Nurses Home was opened on May 8, 1907, as a memorial to Episcopal Bishop Abel Leonard. Its first floor apartments housed the head nurse, the assistant head nurse, and the night nurse plus a living room, while the second and third floors housed the nursing students.
The school's curriculum evolved as state and national standards and trends changed. Initially, the program required extensive clinical training and little classroom work. New students were assigned to the hospital a day after their arrival. Student nurses, known as probationers, spent their first year assisting in general cleaning, food preparation, and other tasks as well as nursing. Each nurse was assigned to a particular ward on regular rotations. Between 1896 and 1920, more than 200 nurses graduated from St. Mark's. Students worked twelve hours per day and attended classes in the evening. Students were provided board and lodging, reasonable laundry and a monthly allowance of $5 for the purchase of uniforms and textbooks and to meet other expenses. In 1927, requirements were tightened requiring high school diplomas for students to be admitted into the program. From 1914 to 1966, clinical work requirements fell from seventy-six hours per week to twenty-eight hours while total classroom hours increased from 208 to 1,543.
Between 1935 and 1950, the need for nurses increased dramatically as the number of patients in U.S. hospitals doubled while the number of stateside nurses declined as more nurses joined military service during World War II. The U.S. Congress responded by creating the U.S. Cadet Nurse Corps as an incentive to increase the number of students in the program by providing financial aid to nursing students. Additionally, St. Mark's Nursing School created its own incentive by making it possible for students to gain university credit at the school. Students could graduate with a Bachelor of Sciences by taking courses in conjunction with the University of Utah. However, this program ended in 1948 when the University tried to gain control of St. Mark's Nursing Program. St. Mark's declined the University's offer and instead became academically affiliated with Westminster College that same year.
The diversity of the school's student body broadened with the addition of the first graduating African American student (Nancy Bankhead) in 1955, and the first graduating male student (Kenneth Ross Church) in 1963. The 1960s saw a national decline in the supply of highly skilled nurses.
St. Mark's-Westminster School of Nursing: On August 15, 1968, shortly after gaining accreditation, the Board of Directors of St. Mark's Hospital voted to terminate the Diploma Program of the St. Mark's Hospital School of Nursing as of June 1970, and to develop a baccalaureate nursing program with Westminster College. The transition was completed in 1970; the first Westminster students graduated in 1972 from the new St. Mark's-Westminster School of Nursing program. Malouf Hall on the Westminster College campus was created as an extension of the Dick Science Building in 1974 and housed the nursing classes for the next 31 years.
Westminster College School of Nursing and Health Sciences moved to a new facility on the third floor of the Dolores Doré Eccles Health, Wellness, and Athletic Center just before the spring semester of 2006.
St. Mark's-Westminster School of Nursing Alumni Association: In the Summer of 1895, St. Mark's Hospital completed the first year of its two-year nursing training program. The St. Mark's Nursing School Alumni Association (originally spelled Alumnae) was established in the 1904/1905 school year as an organization to maintain contact between the school and its alumni. It was organized by Nellie Crossland, superintendent of nurses at the hospital, and began with twelve original members. In 1958, the Association was officially incorporated with the State of Utah. Membership was opened (after payment of dues) to all graduates of the St. Mark' Hospital nursing program.
The organization's changes reflect the changes in the St. Mark's Nursing School. In 1949, the hospital developed an official association with Westminster College, culminating with St. Mark's phasing out of their independent nursing program in favor of full integration with Westminster College in 1970. The school was renamed St. Mark's-Westminster School of Nursing and the Association's name was changed accordingly. In 1995, the School held a large Centennial Celebration to mark its "100 Years of Caring."
The Alumni Association's membership was for all graduates of the St. Mark's nursing program, regardless of whether they attended before or after the merger. All dues-paying members received Stethoscope (the Association's official newsletter), containing the news of the association, school, alumni, upcoming events, and newsworthy items.
In the late 1960s, the Alumni Association became interested in its own history, and that of St. Mark's Hospital, and began to collect college histories, pictures, and personal stories from its members. This effort resulted in the publication in 1970 of St. Mark's Hospital School of Nursing story by Lottie Felkner. It was later updated with Felkner's 1995 A century of caring: 1895-1995 St. Mark's-Westminster School of Nursing.
More information on the current Westminster College School of Nursing and Health Sciences is available online.
Sources of information for this biographical/historical note:
Content Description +/-
This collection consists of administrative records of the St. Mark's-Westminster School of Nursing (Salt Lake City, Utah) dating from 1973-1995. The materials include budgets, catalogs, correspondence, financial records, memoranda, manuals, newspaper clippings, publications and reports, as well as a handful of historical documents which reflect the nursing school's rich history.
This collection contains three versions of the history of St. Mark's Hospital and its Nursing School, compiled and written in the 1990 by Lottie Felkner, the Nursing School's director. This collection also contains administrative records related to the consolidation of St. Mark's -Westminster School of Nursing in 1973, creating a union between what had been St. Mark's School of Nursing program and Westminster College's baccalaureate program. It is not known how the Nursing School operated during the interim—the records do not shed any light on the operation of the Nursing School during this transitory period.
Felkner published her history in 1995. This collection contains the first, revised, and final versions of that history, given the title "Baccalaureate Nursing Development in a Small Liberal Arts College, 1968-1991" (Box 1, Folders 10-12). These versions reflect the changes Felkner made to her history as well as any additions and deletions. The drafts reveal the significant differences between the published version of her history and its original form.
Some records in this collection concern accreditation (Box 1, Folder 1). In the years prior to 1973, St. Mark's Hospital School of Nursing struggled to achieve accreditation. That institution gained accreditation from the National League of Nursing in 1967. For example, the accreditation self-evaluation study (compiled 1977) documents the accreditation visit of a National League of Nursing team to St. Mark's-Westminster's baccalaureate nursing program. The resulting in-depth report examines a wide range of topics including nursing facilities, the faculty, college resources, nursing course objectives, and nursing philosophies. Subsequent reports can be found under the heading "Reports" (Box 2, Folder 7).
The "Notes" file (Box 2, Folder 4) includes slides notes used during a presentation (circa 1990; probably used in conjunction with homecoming), a transcript of remarks read by Pat Shifflet (former faculty member) during a 1988 nurses' pinning ceremony, a paper by Edna L. Neumann (dated February 15, 1973) regarding the teaching of nursing students in the clinical laboratory, and Dr. Neumann's (Nursing School doctor and instructor) meeting notes (circa 1974).
Financial records include budget reports (Box 1, Folder 2) reflecting the expenses incurred by the nursing school, including work study student wages as well as instrument/supply costs and a related Equipment Purchases record (Box 1, Folder 6) detailing a list of the nursing school's moveable equipment and expenditures.
There are two examples of nursing school catalogs in this collection. The first is a St. Mark's-Westminster School of Nursing catalog (circa 1980)(Box 1, Folder 3) which provides a basic overview of the history of St. Mark's and a listing of offered courses complete with general description. The second catalog (1994)(Box 1, Folder 8) was created for faculty purposes and describes St. Mark's-Westminster's approach to the Master's of Science in Nursing degree (MSN) and provides examples of syllabi for all or most courses, including course outlines and objectives. Similar records can be found in the "Curriculum" file (Box 1, Folder 5). Those records (circa 1974) detail course overviews and objectives for numbered nursing courses.
Information regarding nursing faculty can be found in four files—under the headings of "Faculty", "Faculty Manual", "Faculty Policies" (Box 1, Folders 7-9), and "Memoranda" (Box 2, Folder 2). General information regarding faculty members (circa 1974) can be found under the "Faculty" file; memoranda and organizational notes reveal some of the duties of these faculty members. More specific breakdowns are provided, organized by name, which detail courses taught, pupil numbers, credits earned as an instructor, number of advisees, etc. The record under the "Faculty Manual" heading is just that—the duties of a faculty member are outlined in seven sections (circa 1981, the date given of its revision). The documents included in "Faculty Policies" relate to protocols regarding student admission to the nursing program and the treatment of "high risk" students (e.g., behaviors leading to probation).
"Memoranda" (Box 2, Folder 2) refers to correspondence between nursing faculty members and various individuals. Topics discussed in the memos include the provision of special tutoring for students receiving benefits from the G.I. Bill, nursing requirements, nursing faculty workshops, students pressing for national accreditation, faculty appointments, etc.
"Schedules" (Box 2, Folder 8) provides examples of the class schedules for the 1972–1973 school year, as well as the Fall of 1974. These schedules list the classes being offered, the days, and the faculty. No specific information regarding the classes is provided.
An example of a graduate student's Master's project is included in the collection (Box 2, Folder 1). The project was written in 1992 by student Wendy Boren, titled "Historical Analysis of Nursing Curriculum Between 1873–1973". The project is a dated draft copy; some research materials are included.
The "Graduates" file includes a list of graduates from 1974–1984. A list of students accepted to the Nursing program (1974) is included in the "Students" file (Box 2, Folder 10).
A summary outline of the History of Nursing Education in Utah by Sandra Hawkes Noall of the Utah Historical Society is included in "Histories" file (Box 1, Folder 16). It describes briefly the early history of nursing in Utah between the years 1914 and 1943, highlighting important organizations and laws that facilitated the growth and development of nursing and nursing institutions.
One issue of the Markroscope, a St. Mark's Hospital newsletter publication (Box 1, Folder 17), serves as an example of the publication produced by the hospital and associated with the nursing school. This issue (vol. 3, no. 3; May 1980) describes the early history of the hospital and highlights events happening on or around the hospital, such as the transfer of roses from Sugarhouse Park to the flower bed east of the Medical Office Building next to the new St. Mark's Hospital.
Examples of publications produced by the School of Nursing can be found in the "Flyers" file (Box 1, Folder 14). For example, there is a flyer announcing the public seminar with Dolores Krieger Ph. D, R. N., an "internationally acclaimed expert on the use of therapeutic touch as a healing tool"(1986).
Other publications (Box 2, Folder 6) include newsletter issues from the publication "Notes", promotional pamphlets, program summaries, Westminster's official smoking policy (circa 1990), and a small booklet published in celebration of the first anniversary of the opening of the new St. Mark's Hospital (May 1974).
The Newspaper clippings file (Box 2, Folder 3) provides a myriad of information regarding the hospital, nursing staff, faculty, and other issues challenging the institution. For example, an article titled "95-year reunion is time to look back on proud history" (July 24, 1990) details the school's 95th reunion. The article features brief information on the history of the nursing school, and provides an example of one nursing student's anecdote.
Fliers for Sigma Theta Tau, the national honor society of nursing, are included under the fraternity's heading (Box 2, Folder 9). These documents represent two pamphlets and a letter, all regarding the fraternity during the 1989–1990 year. One flier addresses the installation ceremonies of Westminster's Iota Iota chapter, while the other contains an invitation to a lecture on "How You Can Impact National Health Policy."
In 1995, Utah's Governor Michael O. Leavitt signed a proclamation naming June 10, 1995 as "St. Mark's-Westminster School of Nursing Day" (Box 2, Folder 5). The date recognizes St. Mark's Nursing School's centennial celebration, its "Century of Caring."
Collection Use +/-
Restrictions on Access:
Open to public research.
Access to parts of this collection may be restricted under provisions of state or federal law.
The memoranda contained in Box 3, Folder 1 are subject to limited access. It should be noted that these records had to be removed and sealed due to the Family Education Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA). These records are available to relations of the subject or upon proof of the subject's death.
Twenty-four hours advance notice is encouraged.
Restrictions on Use:
It is the responsibility of the researcher to obtain any necessary copyright clearances.
Permission to publish material must be obtained from the director of the Giovale Library.
St. Mark's-Westminster School of Nursing administrative records, 1973-1995, ACC-067A, Giovale Library Archives, Westminster College, Salt Lake City, Utah.
Administrative Information +/-
Arranged alphabetically by subject, and thereunder chronologically.
Processed February 2007 by Joshua Ivie. Records relating to Tuition and Fees (ca. 1969; St. Mark's Hospital School of Nursing) have been moved to collection ACC-066A (St. Mark's Hospital School of Nursing administrative records, 1913-1969).
St. Mark's-Westminster School of Nursing
Collection materials are in English.
0.7 linear foot
Language of the Finding Aid:
Author of the Finding Aid:
Finding aid written February 2007 by Joshua Ivie; expanded March 2015 by Sarah Shaw.
EAD Creation Date:
2015 March 24 by Sarah Shaw
Describing Archives : A Content Standard (DACS)
Related collections and photographs in Giovale Library Archives:
National League for Nursing
Form or Genre Terms:
Salt Lake City (Utah)--History--Sources