Table of Contents
Collection Overview +/-
Collection Inventory +/-
box 1, folder 1: Accreditation materials (1913)
box 1, folder 2: Accreditation materials (1949)
box 1, folder 3: Accreditation profile (1951)
box 1, folder 4: Accreditation recommendations (1967)
box 1, folder 5: Accreditation report (1937)
box 1, folder 6: Accreditation report (1938)
box 1, folder 7: Accreditation report (1939)
box 1, folder 8: Accreditation report (1940)
box 1, folder 9: Accreditation report (1941)
box 1, folder 10: Accreditation report (1942)
box 1, folder 11: Accreditation report (1943)
box 1, folder 12: Accreditation report (1945)
box 1, folder 13: Accreditation report (1946)
box 1, folder 14: Accreditation report (1947)
box 1, folder 15: Accreditation report (1948)
box 1, folder 16: Accreditation report (1949)
box 1, folder 17: Accreditation report (1950)
box 1, folder 18: Accreditation report (1951)
box 1, folder 19: Accreditation report (1952)
box 1, folder 20: Accreditation report (1953)
box 1, folder 21: Accreditation report (1954)
box 1, folder 22: Accreditation report (1956)
box 1, folder 23: Accreditation report (1957)
box 1, folder 24: Accreditation report (1958)
box 1, folder 25: Accreditation report (1959)
box 1, folder 26: Accreditation report (1960)
box 1, folder 27: Accreditation report (1964)
box 1, folder 28: Accreditation report (1965)
box 1, folder 29: Accreditation report (1966)
box 1, folder 30: Accreditation report (1967)
box 2, folder 1: Accreditation self-study report (1967)
box 2, folder 2: Accreditation survey (1943)
box 2, folder 3: Accreditation survey (1945)
box 2, folder 4: Accreditation visit (1965)
box 2, folder 5: Correspondence (1945-1964)
box 2, folder 6: Correspondence (1965-1969)
box 2, folder 7: Diploma
box 2, folder 8: Faculty bylaws
box 2, folder 9: Faculty manual
box 2, folder 10: Fees
box 2, folder 11: Graduation
box 2, folder 12: History (historical sketch)
box 2, folder 13: History (hospital)
box 2, folder 14: History (medicine)
box 2, folder 15: History (nursing)
box 2, folder 16: History (nursing school)
box 2, folder 17: List of graduates (1896-1964)
box 2, folder 18: Neighborhood House (1955-1960)
box 2, folder 19: Newspaper clippings
box 3, folder 1: Publications (Bulletin) (1961-1963)
box 3, folder 2: Publications (Bulletin) (1965-1966)
box 3, folder 3: Publications (Bulletin) (1967-1968)
box 3, folder 4: Publications (Capping ceremony) (1946)
box 3, folder 5: Publications (Convoy)
box 3, folder 6: Publications (Hospital publications) (1962)
box 3, folder 7: Publications (Song "The blue cross of St. Mark's")
box 3, folder 8: Publications (Tueor)
Biographical Note/Historical Note +/-
St. Mark's Hospital opened in 1872 under the direction of the Episcopal Church in a two room adobe house on 500 East and 300 South in Salt Lake City. Two years later it admitted its first patients. The 1879 expansion saw the purchase of land and the erection of a new building with room for fifteen beds to better treat the infirm miner lead poisoning, industrial injuries, and typhoid fever.
St. Marks Hospital School of Nursing: On March 24, 1893, the St. Mark's Hospital Board of Directors authorized the establishment of a training school for nurses in connection with the hospital. In 1894, a new 50-bed St. Mark's hospital opened with a nurses training program at 200 North 700 West. Twenty-three year old, Miss Mary Edith Newitt, a recent graduate of New York City's St. Luke's Training School, served as the head nurse. The first class of four nurses graduated from the two year program in 1896. While St. Mark's Nursing School began as a two-year program, a third year was added in 1898. Between 1892 and 1898, the hospital more than doubled its capacity when it added a new wing to house the surgical, medical, and women's wards.
The nursing students were initially housed in a cottage owned by the hospital on Reed Street, later they lived in the basement of the new wing, and finally they moved into a new three-story residence constructed in 1906. The Nurses Home was opened on May 8, 1907, as a memorial to Episcopal Bishop Abel Leonard. Its first floor apartments housed the head nurse, the assistant head nurse, and the night nurse plus a living room, while the second and third floors housed the nursing students.
The school's curriculum evolved as state and national standards and trends changed. Initially, the program required extensive clinical training and little classroom work. New students were assigned to the hospital a day after their arrival. Student nurses, known as probationers, spent their first year assisting in general cleaning, food preparation, and other tasks as well as nursing. Each nurse was assigned to a particular ward on regular rotations. Between 1896 and 1920, more than 200 nurses graduated from St. Mark's. Students worked twelve hours per day and attended classes in the evening. Students were provided board and lodging, reasonable laundry and a monthly allowance of $5 for the purchase of uniforms and textbooks and to meet other expenses. In 1927, requirements were tightened requiring high school diplomas for students to be admitted into the program. From 1914 to 1966, clinical work requirements fell from seventy-six hours per week to twenty-eight hours while total classroom hours increased from 208 to 1,543.
Between 1935 and 1950, the need for nurses increased dramatically as the number of patients in U.S. hospitals doubled while the number of stateside nurses declined as more nurses joined military service during World War II. The U.S. Congress responded by creating the U.S. Cadet Nurse Corps as an incentive to increase the number of students in the program by providing financial aid to nursing students. Additionally, St. Mark's Nursing School created its own incentive by making it possible for students to gain university credit at the school. Students could graduate with a Bachelor of Sciences by taking courses in conjunction with the University of Utah. However, this program ended in 1948 when the University tried to gain control of St. Mark's Nursing Program. St. Mark's declined the University's offer and instead became academically affiliated with Westminster College that same year.
The diversity of the school's student body broadened with the addition of the first graduating African American student (Nancy Bankhead) in 1955, and the first graduating male student (Kenneth Ross Church) in 1963. The 1960s saw a national decline in the supply of highly skilled nurses.
On August 15, 1968, the Board of Directors of St. Mark's Hospital voted to terminate the Diploma Program of the St. Mark's Hospital School of Nursing as of June 1970. In an effort to build support for the program, Westminster College and St. Mark's Nursing School commenced a baccalaureate-nursing program together, completing the transition in 1970, in time for the first Westminster students to graduate from the program in 1972.
Dr. Galen O. Belden (secretary of the medical staff at St. Mark's Hospital) established a memorial scholarship in 1991 shortly after his wife's death. The Irene Bunch Belden Memorial Nursing Scholarship is awarded to nursing students at Westminster College who have completed their freshman year and demonstrate financial need. In the 2009-2010 year, 12 student nurses were each awarded $3,100.
More information on the current Westminster College School of Nursing and Health Sciences is available online.
Sources of information for this biographical/historical note:
Content Description +/-
This collection consists of St. Mark's Hospital (Salt Lake City, Utah) School of Nursing administrative records dating 1913-1969. Material include accreditation records (the focus of the collection), correspondence, a diploma, graduation records, newspaper clippings, publications, reports, surveys, self-studies, and several historical documents relating largely to St. Mark's Hospital's Nursing School's pursuit of accreditation and highlights the practices and development of the Hospital as an institution.
The underlying subject of these records is accreditation—the majority of the records reflect this. Those that do not address accreditation typically attempt to frame St. Mark's Hospital in an historical context. The nursing school was only accredited for a short time, which is reflected in the later years included in this collection (see below).
The majority of this collection consists of records used to collect information for the accreditation reports. They provide statistical data regarding numbers of nursing students, professional nurses working in the program, students not graduating, hospital beds, rooms, and machinery. They detail practices of the hospital, and provide an annual description of the hospital.
When preparing for accreditation, the hospital compiled information for temporary accreditation. This information was used to supplement the required application. The temporary accreditation profile lists the criteria (i.e., hours of work per week, sick leave, maximum hours of class and practice work, etc.) of the National Nursing Accrediting Service (not to be confused with the National League of Nursing, which would later supply the School with full accreditation), which shows data provided by St. Mark's, comparing it to the suggested values and percent of national schools operating at or above the suggested level. The records are unclear as to whether the hospital was interested in securing a temporary accreditation with the hopes that it would later achieve full accreditation, or if the hospital was interested in temporary accreditation and only later opted for full accreditation.
The Recommendations and Policies files contains a list of seventeen recommendations made to the St. Mark's nursing program to assist them in completing the process and to increase their chance for accreditation. They were used to further the hospital's goal of accreditation. The hospital responded by compiling a self-study report (16 January 1967) including details on its faculty (title, education, and previous instructional background), the School's curriculum (course titles, methods of evaluation, and patient units, and the bylaws of faculty organization).
A significant portion of the accreditation records are the various reports and surveys. The statistical reports contain annual numbers of faculty/staff members, enrolled students, and graduates. Occasionally, the hospital director reports address the general status of the hospital (i.e., any important changes, financial gains/losses, etc.). The 1964 report is particularly important because it contains the result of the National League of Nursing's (NLN) consultation visit and discussion. It was used to provide the hospital with suggestions on achieving accreditation.
An example of a survey is as follows: 1943, a year when the Hospital was particularly concerned with its status, produced two surveys. The first survey contains a historical statement and the nursing school's objectives. Notes on its governance (organization, lines of authority and functions), faculty (general education, selection and appointment, length of service, salaries, service load, welfare, aids to faculty growth), students (number and selection, orientation, health service, weekly hour schedule, conditions during night assignment, maintenance, extra-professional program, promotion and graduation), classrooms, libraries, and offices, clinical fields (general characteristics of the hospital, nursing service data), and curriculum (general plan, subject and sequence, practice areas and sequence, medical and surgical nursing, nutrition and diet therapy, operative aseptic nursing, obstetric nursing practice, pediatric nursing practice). Also contained in these documents is a "Visitor's List of Factors of Outstanding Importance," detailing the strengths and weaknesses of the controlling and administrative bodies, faculty, etc. The hospital achieved full accreditation from the National League of Nursing in 1967.
Graduation is a topic that is addressed in these records; the relevant folders include "Diploma," "Graduation," and "List of Graduates." The diploma is an unsigned diploma meant for a woman named Kimberly Sue Bayless—there is no notation on the diploma, and no mention of who this woman was. There are two types of records in the "Graduation" folder: one features articles related to the Nursing School's graduation ceremony, and the other is made up of news clippings of graduation announcements (done by class; provides photos of the graduates). The "List of Graduates" provides the names of all Nursing School graduates between 1896 and 1964.
The documents in the "Fees" folder provide an outline of expenses "for all students entering [during] 1964." The fees are broken into ten-term allotments, and include expenses such as tuition, books, library fees, graduation fees, etc. as related to a particular term.
Other records within this collection are faculty information including the "Faculty Bylaws" and "Faculty Manual." The bylaws are the organizational rules of the nursing school, its purpose, functions, membership, parliamentary authority, and describes officers, terms of office, faculty, committees, executive authority, special committees, and faculty meetings. The manual expands on the information within the bylaws emphasizing the institution's philosophy and objectives, providing general information on St. Mark's Hospital School of Nursing, and describing evaluations, its counseling program, and the library.
Another significant portion of this collection is the various historical writings relating to the hospital, medicine, nursing, and the nursing school. The first is an undated anonymous historical sketch which details the early history (ca. 1892-1930s) of the hospital and nursing school. The hospital histories file includes three documents. The first is a hospital chronology, "History of St. Mark's Hospital" listing historical events from 1862 to the 1940s. The second is an excerpt from History of St. Mark's Hospital, written by William H. Behle (1948). The third document is "Reminiscences of St. Mark's Hospital," an early history by Beatrice Smith, who entered St. Mark's Nursing School in 1896. It was later published in St. Mark's Nursing School's History (1970, pp. 28-39).
The nursing history file (Box 2, Folder 15) includes a variety of histories that relate to the history of nursing in Utah. The first is a draft copy of a paper read and prepared by nurse Laura G. Willes, at the meeting of the Utah State Nurses Association (30 April 1927). A handwritten comment describes it as a "summary of some of the high points, prepared rather hurridly[sic]." There is also a chronology organized by nursing school and year, that lists student numbers, numbers of graduates, and includes closed nursing schools (1894 -1967; no author is given). Another document lists the past presidents and other officers of the Utah State Nurses' Association, eligibility of membership, and information on the establishment of nurses, registry, and districts. Lastly, there is an outline history of nursing in Utah (1847–1947); neither author nor publication date is given. It details medicine and nursing among "Indians" and pioneers, hospitals and nursing schools in Utah, "public health nurses at present holding positions in Utah," current statistics on nurses in Utah, graduates of Utah nursing schools, "out of state nurses who have made contributions to nursing in Utah," and doctors and university faculty members "prominent in improvement of nursing and nursing education."
The Nursing School history file (Box 2, Folder 16) contains a brief description of the fiftieth commencement of St. Mark's Nursing School. It includes a brief history starting at 1894, and mentions the nursing school's affiliation with the University of Utah (which was dissolved in the 1940s). No author is given.
The Neighborhood House file (Box 2, Folder 18) relates to the nursing school's relationship with the facility for their pediatric nursing unit. The Neighborhood House provided "day care," and was a cooperative agency with St. Mark's in the area correlated Nursing of Children. No address for this community facility is given in the various materials. There are two reports, both dated 1958; the first report, the survey report, provides letters stating that there is a relationship between St. Mark's and details the operating procedures of the Neighborhood House. St. Mark's nurses would rotate through Neighborhood House as part of their pediatric unit. The second report, the survey report on the Neighborhood House affiliation, simply states that the pediatric experience provided by the Neighborhood House meets the requirements of the St. Mark's Nursing School.
This collection also includes various newspaper clippings (Box 2, Folder 19) from local newspapers (the Salt Lake Telegram (May 12, 1948), Sun-Advocate, Deseret News) as well hospital newspapers, dating from the 1950s and 1960s. The contents of many of the articles are generally less important than their photographs, including the following: "Nursing is Most Attractive Career for Young Girls," "Variety is Spice of Nurses' Lives," and "What Smart Heads are Wearing." Each of these articles provides photographs of nurses doing various academic and extra-curricular activities; the "Smart Heads" article compares the differences between the nursing caps of various local hospitals. Other articles concern individual students and alumni of St. Mark's School of Nursing.
The remainder of this collection is made up of publications (Box 3). The first named publication is the St. Mark's Hospital School of Nursing Bulletin, which introduces the aims, agendas, requirements, availability of financial aid, organization, etc. of the Nursing School. It is unknown when the publication began (the Bulletin is not distinguished by volume or issue), and the publication appears to change frequency depending upon unknown factors (for example, the first Bulletin encompasses two academic years, 1961-1963, whereas the last two relate to a single academic year, 1965-1966 and 1967-1968). The Bulletin is not an academic catalog nor does it offer detailed information on classes offered; the Bulletin provides a brief overview of the Nursing School to prospective students.
The next named publication is the Convoy, published in the wake of World War II (the publication's illustrations reflect this). The publication is "A mimeographed monthly containing News, Letters, Gossip and 'what have you?' from the Home Front, printed and published by the Reverend A. Leonard Wood -- Chaplain of St Mark's Hospital – Salt Lake City, Utah." This publication appears to be topical and not something that was continued in the future—the numbers included in this collection (the publication is not organized by volume or issue, but given a number) are 1 (April 1943), 4 (July 1943), 5 (August 1943), and the un-numbered "Victory Number" edition (September 1945). The first number of the Convoy, in the "News Items" section, clearly outlines the purpose of the publication: "The Convoy has been created for the express purpose of "convoying" to its readers, and especially to the graduates of St. Mark's Hospital now in the armed forces "loads" ... of news, information, and messages from those on the home front. It is printed and published by the Chaplain of St. Mark's in his own time ... and at his own expense..."
The last named publication is the Tueor (Box 3, Folder 8). The Tueor is a yearbook (1968-1969), though it is not known if it is the official yearbook of the Nursing School. The Latin word "tueor" translates as guard, protect, uphold. The Tueor offers standard yearbook fare—students, graduates, inspirational messages, faculty and staff personnel, student body officers, activities, and so on. There is no notation given as to the significance (if any) of the presence of the yearbook in this collection, nor is the Tueor given any volume number.
There are a handful of publications that are not named, and serve specific purposes. For example, a program from the 1946 capping ceremony is included. The program offers the itinerary of the ceremony as well as a poem titled "A Nurse's Prayer," written by Ethel Marie Schutt (whose relationship to St. Mark's is unknown).
There is a variety of Hospital publications as well. These include a "Personnel Policies" booklet, Nursing School brochures, and a Hospital Highlights newsletter (Vol. 7, No. 1; January 1962). The newsletter offers articles related to medical practices, news items related to the hospital, and issues related to the Utah State Hospital Association.
Lastly, there are two anonymous, undated copies of the Hospital's (and most likely Nursing School's) song, "The Blue Cross of St. Mark's." It isn't known who composed the song.
Gaps in the collection: No accreditation reports were found for the years 1944, 1955, 1961-1963. No issues of the Bulletin were found for the years 1964.
Collection Use +/-
Restrictions on Access:
Open to public research.
Access to parts of this collection may be restricted under provisions of state or federal law.
Twenty-four hours advance notice is encouraged.
Restrictions on Use:
It is the responsibility of the researcher to obtain any necessary copyright clearances.
Permission to publish material must be obtained from the director of the Giovale Library.
St. Mark's Hospital School of Nursing administrative records, 1913-1969, ACC-066A, Giovale Library Archives, Westminster College, Salt Lake City, Utah.
Administrative Information +/-
Arranged alphabetically by subject category, thereunder chronologically.
Processed by Joshua Ivie in May 2006. It is not known when Westminster College acquired these records. The records had no discernable order aside from the reports, which were organized by year into envelopes.
St. Mark's Hospital (Salt Lake City, Utah). School of Nursing
Collection materials are in English.
1.0 linear foot
Language of the Finding Aid:
Author of the Finding Aid:
Finding aid written May 2006 by Joshua Ivie; revised and expanded January 2015 by Sarah Shaw.
EAD Creation Date:
2015 January 22 by Sarah Shaw
Describing Archives : A Content Standard (DACS)
Related collections and photographs in Giovale Library Archives:
National League of Nursing Education (U.S.)
Nursing--Study and teaching--History--Sources
Form or Genre Terms:
Bayless, Kimberly Sue
Salt Lake City (Utah)--History--Sources