The Structure of Large Flames

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Title The Structure of Large Flames
Creator Pohl, J. H.; Soelberg, N. R.; Poncelet, E.; Tichenor, B. A.
Publisher Digitized by J. Willard Marriott Library, University of Utah
Date 1985
Spatial Coverage presented at Livermore, California
Abstract Practical flare flames typically burn on nozzles from 24-48 inches in diameter and produce flames up to 200-400 feet long. Emissions of incompletely burned gases from such flames are unknown and difficult to measure with available technology. Large pilot scale tests using 3 through 12 inch flare heads were used to measure the emission from flare flames. Extrapolation of the results to commercial flare flames required that scaling laws for emissions from large flames be established. The flames lengths, flame stability and emissions were investigated for flames burned on nozzles from 0.042 inches to commercial flare heads 12 inches in diameter. The results show that flames burned on pipes from two inches through 12 inches have similar flame structure and that in this range the emission of unburned hydrocarbons does not depend upon flare head diameter. Nozzles smaller than two inches have a flame structure which is different from the larger flares, depends on the diameter of the nozzle, and can not be easily scaled to larger nozzles. The difficulties in scaling the structure and emissions of the smaller nozzles is the result of the difficulty of simultaneously scaling the Reynolds number and Richards on number from large to small flames, the difficulty of producing small flames with large Richardson number, and the greater influence of heat loss and atmospheric conditions on small flames.
Type Text
Format application/pdf
Language eng
Rights This material may be protected by copyright. Permission required for use in any form. For further information please contact the American Flame Research Committee.
Conversion Specifications Original scanned with Canon EOS-1Ds Mark II, 16.7 megapixel digital camera and saved as 400 ppi uncompressed TIFF, 16 bit depth.
Scanning Technician Cliodhna Davis
Metadata Cataloger Kendra Yates
ARK ark:/87278/s6xg9tp1
Setname uu_afrc
Date Created 2012-04-11
Date Modified 2012-08-09
ID 2356
Reference URL