21 Years of Real-World Low NOx Injection ("LNI")

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Title 21 Years of Real-World Low NOx Injection ("LNI")
Creator Newby, John
Date 2013-09-23
Spatial Coverage Kauai, Hawaii
Subject AFRC 2013 Industrial Combustion Symposium
Description Paper from the AFRC 2013 conference titled 21 Years of Real-World Low NOx Injection ("LNI") by John Newby.
Abstract Originating from a license for the late 1980's-developed "Fuel Direct Injection" (FDI) technology from Tokyo Gas, the author's company developed and widely applied several commercial burner products and systems. Known at Fives North American Combustion as "LNI" (Low NOx Injection), the technique has been used in the aluminum, steel, and glass industries and demonstrated outstanding low-NOx performance. Originally envisaged for gas firing only, the technique was evaluated and commercialized on both light and heavy oils, again with good NOx emissions performance. The technique has been commercially applied to cold air, recuperated air, regenerated air, and oxygen burners. An LNI burner operates as a conventional nozzle-mixing burner below 1450F furnace temperature. Above 1450F, fuel is switched to one or more strategically placed nozzles adjacent to the burner port. Fuel from the nozzle(s) and oxidant from the burner port mix intimately with furnace gases, becoming extremely dilute before combining in a combustion reaction. Local oxygen concentrations can be reduced to below 5%. The dilute streams autoignite and achieve complete combustion within the furnace environment. In the flame envelope, entrained gases limit the maximum in-flame reaction temperatures that generate high NOx emissions. Original laboratory work investigated the parameters affecting the rate of NOx formation and/or the combustion zone mixing and heat release patterns for LNI combustion, covering four burner-dependent aspects: orientation of fuel and oxidant injectors, oxidant exit velocity, fuel velocity, number of injectors; and four application aspects: furnace O2 concentration, furnace temperature, oxidant temperature and furnace geometry. The paper will present test results covering these parameters for conventional forward flame regenerative burners on gaseous and liquid fuels including heavy oil and ambient combustion air and oxy-fuel burners. More recently the ability of LNI systems to reheat metals in box furnaces with close temperature uniformity for high quality forming work has been studied Thermal and emissions performance in the real world of the production environment will be reviewed with examples of regenerative burner and recuperated air reheat furnaces from the ~300 commercial installations in operation worldwide.
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ARK ark:/87278/s6wm4bjm
Setname uu_afrc
Date Created 2014-10-14
Date Modified 2021-05-06
ID 14360
Reference URL https://collections.lib.utah.edu/ark:/87278/s6wm4bjm