||This dissertation is a description of Xinaliq, a Northeast (Nakh-Daghestanian) Caucasian language spoken primarily in the village also called Xinaliq, which lies at an elevation of 7,000 feet in the Kuba district of Azerbaijan, near the border with Daghestan. Currently there are approximately 1,500 residents in the village. Most of them are bilingual. Use of the Xinaliq language is decreasing rapidly due to many economic and social factors. The aim of this dissertation is to contribute to linguistics scholarship in several ways: (i) Xinaliq offers rich typological traits that have been understudied, due to the relatively sparse linguistic analysis of the Northeast Caucasian languages; (ii) Xinaliq offers many resources for historical linguistics, providing material needed for the study of language change, language contact, and possible genetic relationships among languages in this region; (iii) cultural description of the region will benefit anybody interested in this ancient community, its members and their language. The grammar, although based on a linguistic analysis informed by current linguistic theory and advances in language typology, is theory neutral. An attempt was made to analyze, interpret and synthesize phonological and morphological patterns in formats that will be useful both to linguists and to researchers from other fields, as well as Xinaliq community members. In addition to the grammar, the dissertation describes the historical and cultural background of the language and the speakers of the language. This dissertation is primarily based on data collected during several field trips undertaken by the author between the years 2009 - 2013. It is supplemented with data from the initial visit to Xinaliq village with Dr. Harris in 2009. Limited materials available from previous research on the language have also been researched and studied. The fieldwork consisted of long-term stays in Xinaliq village, eliciting data, collecting texts, making video and audio recordings and participating in daily life activities with the community members. Different socioeconomic groups, including men, women and children of various ages were engaged in the process. This dissertation has been partially supported by a grant from National Science Foundation, DoBes Volkswagen Foundation and The American Research Institute of the South Caucasus.