Figure 17 are from Tables 1 and 2 and the sources

alyzed using a two-parameter power function.

cited above. This figure indicates that nonde-

The relationship is a further development of the

formed Beaufort Sea ice floes have a gas volume

taining a power function of stress:

between about 1 and 2%.

The σc values calculated using eq 8 in relation

ε = *B*σn ,

to the controlling parameters ε and φB can be an-

˙

˙

where *B *is an empirical parameter that takes into

φ B = 19.37 + 36.18 S 0.91 T 0.69

account ice structure, temperature, activation en-

B

A

ergy, and other factors, σ is the applied stress, and

r2 = 0.995

S D = 1.57

the empirical exponent *n *is generally found to be

about 3 for ice. Rearranging for σ, the above equa-

120

tion becomes

a

100

σ = *B*1 ε 1/*n *,

˙

80

60

by Glen (1955, 1958) to evaluate the creep behav-

ior of solid, not porous, freshwater ice. Since the

40

ice porosity has a profound effect on σ, the above

8

6

equation must be modified to include a porosity

20

(‰)

4

ity

10

parameter φ as follows:

alin

8

2

6

lk S

4

TA , Avg. Fl

0

Bu

2

S B,

oe Tem

p. (|C |)

σ = *B*2 ε1/*n *φm ,

˙

(9)

120

where *B*2 = *B*1 φ*m *and *m *is an empirical exponent.

b

100

Equation 9 was evaluated by substituting the

2 C

σc values obtained from eq 8 for σ in eq 9 and

80

using the related controlling parameters φB and ε

˙

given in Table 3. The result is shown in Figure 18.

60

Equation 9 is shown to statistically fit the data

11 C

extremely well with an *r*2 value of 0.993.

40

As more data become available, the failure sur-

20

0

2

4

6

8

face and therefore the variables in eq 9 may be

S B, Bulk Salinity (‰)

better determined. Even though the failure sur-

face fits the data with a high *r*2 value of 0.993, the

data suggest that this surface is not a straight line

as viewed from the strain rate window in Figure

4

3

2

1

σC (M) = 0.016 + 1.007 σC (T-F)

r 2 = 0.989

S D = 0.09

0

1

2

3

4

σ C (T-F) , Timco-Frederking

Horizontal Unconfined Compressive Strength (MPa)

9