|Title||The IFRF- Past, Present, and Future|
|Description||Paper from the AFRC 2017 conference titled The IFRF- Past, Present, and Future|
|Abstract||The IFRF was founded as a result of international cooperation in the late 1940s around a semi-industrial scale experimental furnace being constructed by Royal Dutch Iron and Steel at IJmuiden in the Netherlands. The IFRF Research Station was constructed in the mid-1950s on the property of KNHS-Hoogovens-Corus, where it remained, with the No. 1 Furnace at its heart, until a new agreement with ENEL and the University of Pisa relocated the organization to Italy in 2006.; From the time of its founding as a laboratory, in which combustion and heat transfer concepts were developed and tested for ultimate application in industry, the IFRF continued to cooperate with academic and industrial research laboratories to further develop the understanding of turbulent flame phenomena. Over time, the IFRF grew in capacity and complexity to meet the needs of its members, undertaking communication and networking functions as well as research.; Fifty years on, with a knowledge-base stored in digital format, the IFRF moved to Livorno in Italy. By this time the suite of services had expanded to include a weekly newsletter, a technical journal and an information archive of reports, books and conference proceedings as well as an online combustion handbook, and a portfolio of short courses. All of these materials are focused around the needs of over 90 industrial and 40 academic organizational members connected virtually to each other and the organization via a dedicated website.; With realignment of ENEL's energy activities, 2017 sees the IFRF - now approaching the age of 70 - moving for a second time, this time to Sheffield in the UK. From January, the IFRF has been hosted by the University of Sheffield, with research activity undertaken in partnership with the PACT facilities in Beighton (near Sheffield), where a wide range of pilot-scale advanced combustion facilities enable the IFRF to continue its mission and broaden its membership and area of technical application.; The paper presents a review of the past and present activities of this prestigious organization, before giving a perspective of future plans and priorities.|
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THE IFRF - PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE: 70 YEARS OF THE INTERNATIONAL FLAME RESEARCH FOUNDATION - A NEW PHASE Professor P Sharman International Flame Research Foundation (IFRF), Sheffield, UK Abstract The IFRF was founded as a result of international cooperation in the late 1940s around a semi-industrial scale experimental furnace being constructed by Royal Dutch Iron and Steel at IJmuiden in the Netherlands. The IFRF Research Station was constructed in the mid-1950s on the property of KNHS-Hoogovens-Corus, where it remained, with the No. 1 Furnace at its heart, until a new agreement with ENEL and the University of Pisa relocated the organization to Italy in 2006. From the time of its founding as a laboratory, in which combustion and heat transfer concepts were developed and tested for ultimate application in industry, the IFRF continued to cooperate with academic and industrial research laboratories to further develop the understanding of turbulent flame phenomena. Over time, the IFRF grew in capacity and complexity to meet the needs of its members, undertaking communication and networking functions as well as research. Fifty years on, with a knowledge-base stored in digital format, the IFRF moved to Livorno in Italy. By this time the suite of services had expanded to include a weekly newsletter, a technical journal and an information archive of reports, books and conference proceedings as well as an online combustion handbook, and a portfolio of short courses. All of these materials are focused around the needs of over 90 industrial and 40 academic organizational members connected virtually to each other and the organization via a dedicated website. With realignment of ENEL's energy activities, 2017 sees the IFRF - now approaching the age of 70 - moving for a second time, this time to Sheffield in the UK. From January, the IFRF has been hosted by the University of Sheffield, with research activity undertaken in partnership with the PACT facilities in Beighton (near Sheffield), where a wide range of pilotscale advanced combustion facilities enable the IFRF to continue its mission and broaden its membership and area of technical application. The paper presents a review of the past and present activities of this prestigious organization, before giving a perspective of future plans and priorities. Keywords: combustion, burner, heat transfer, industrial, academic, power generation, research, network Contact: email@example.com +44 7976 847305 The beginnings of IFRF The late 1940s found the European iron and steel industry in need of reconstruction and modernization. The Second World War had taken its toll and peace-time Europe was in need of large quantities of steel for rebuilding its damaged infrastructure. Most of the remaining furnaces were using ‘producer gas', and there was an urgent need to move to oiland coke oven gas-fired furnaces for more efficient and lower cost production. Amongst the steel producers of the Netherlands, the UK, and France, there was also a recognition of a need to develop a better understanding of how to optimize heat transfer in open-hearth furnaces using these fuels. It was a ‘happy coincidence' therefore that brought together personnel from the Royal Dutch Iron & Steel Company, KNHS (‘Hoogovens') from Ijmuiden in the Netherlands, Dr Meredith Thring, who had been with the British Coal Utilization Research Association (BCURA) and had recently moved to join the newly-formed British Iron & Steel Research Association (BISRA), and various French personnel, particularly from the research institute IRSID. Finding research funds in post-war Europe was difficult, and what materialized was an excellent example of international collaboration based on a note written by Meredith Thring titled ‘Proposals for the establishment of an international research project on luminous radiation' in November 1948. A follow-up note identified a newly-built Hoogovens research furnace at Ijmuiden with a chamber of 2m x 2m x 7.5m derived from a normal open-hearth furnace with a scale ratio of 1:4-1:5. And so began an informal and fruitful collaboration between these three organizations, focused on experimental research of luminous radiation to increase flame emissivity and improve the performance of open-hearth furnaces. As is always the way, as the scope and cost of the research programs grow, and industrial or government funding becomes necessary, more formal arrangements and organizational structure has to be established - and in the case of this collaborative venture, ‘National Committees' were set up in the Netherlands, the UK, and France, and a ‘Joint Committee' established to provide governance. Meredith Thring was appointed as the first Superintendent of Research and, in 1955, the IFRF was established as a not-for-profit organization under Dutch law. A resident research team was created in 1950, with a large number of visiting investigators passing through the Ijmuiden hub. A new oil- and gas-fired furnace (‘No. 1' furnace - chamber 2m x 2m x 6.25m) was commissioned in 1954, enabling a widening of the research themes to include other industrial applications, and a new pulverized-fuel-fired furnace (1.5m x 1.5m x 10.5m) was installed in 1955. Both furnaces were fully-equipped with multiple slots/ports for analytical probe access to allow in-flame measurements to be conducted, and so the IFRF ‘Research Station' came into being. A developing membership, research program, and capability Over the following years and decades, other National Committees were formed - the American Committee (1952), Belgian Committee (1953), German Committee (1962 - after the IFRF's research themes had expanded to include coal-fired combustion), Italian Committee (1965), Swedish Committee (1967), Japanese Committee (1977), and Finnish Committee (1980). The sources of research funding also expanded, including the European Coal and Steel Community (1955-1974), the US Environmental Protection Agency (19721978), the International Energy Agency (IEA) Coal Combustion Sciences Programme (19831992), and the European Commission (EC) JOULE, APAS, and Framework Programmes for Research and Innovation (1988 to the present). In conjunction with this expansion of membership base and funding sources, the Research Station at Ijmuiden also expanded: an Aerodynamics Laboratory was established (1965); a water-cooled experimental furnace (1.2m x 1.2m x 4.7m) was acquired from Shell's research facility in Egham, UK (1975 - to support the growing IFRF activity on gas-firing); the Isothermal Plug Flow Reactor (IPFR, 80mm dia. x 2m) was commissioned (1983); a coal preparation facility and wind tunnel swirlgenerator were added (1983); LDV and LDA analysis capabilities were developed (19831984); and a Computational Laboratory was established (1986). Research theme development across the decades As indicated above, the themes of the research activities have changed and developed, over the decades, to complement to industrial interests of IFRF member organizations. In the 1950s, the IFRF's research program was focused on oil- and gas-flame emissivity, fluid mechanics and mixing within flames, and, towards the end of the decade, on coal combustion research - including combustion mechanisms and 3-D mapping of flames. The 1960s saw a growing interest in combustion aerodynamics, with research activity on non-swirling jet flames, swirl-stabilized flames, aerodynamics and mixing in isothermal swirling flames, and comparisons between isothermal and combusting flows. Following finds of natural gas at Groningen in the Netherlands in 1965, research on natural gas combustion developed, particularly with and for Shell's Research Station (Egham, UK). This decade also saw the IFRF's first Members Conference, held in IJmuiden in 1969 (18 such conferences have been held to date). In the 1970s, growing concerns about the environmental impact of combustion processes in industry and power generation - particularly emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO x) - led to the IFRF's research program being focused on in-furnace NOx reduction technologies and modeling aimed at pollution reduction. This ‘near-market', industrial focus also had the effect of the Research Station getting involved in contract research. Development of the Externally Air-Staged Low-NOx Burner (EASB) by IFRF in 1972, led to German company L&C Steinmüller commercializing this technology. Mathematical modeling of NOx formation, supported by IFRF's Aerodynamics Laboratory, led to work for the US Environmental Protection Agency on NOx enissions reduction, burner scaling trials (0.5-33MW scale) for the UK Central Electricity Generating Board, combustion of residual coke and coal in gas turbine exhaust gases with Vereinigte Elektrizitätswerke Westfalen (Germany), trials on gas and oil combustion, and multiple burner trials for members (e.g. Shell, Lurgi, etc.). Environmental concerns continued to shape the IFRF's research activities in the 1980s, with emissions of oxides of sulfur (SOx) - precursors to ‘acid rain' formation - as well as NOx being of interest. The newly-installed IPFR was used to examine direct SO2 capture by calcium sorbent injection with L&C Steinmüller (Germany) and CERCHAR (France), while near-field aerodynamics of swirl-stabilized burners, aided by new laser visualization techniques, led to the development of new low-NOx burner designs - the Aerodynamically Air-Staged Burner (AASB) and the Air-Staged Precombustor Burner - with Babcock Energy (UK), and L&C Steinmüller and Deutsche Babcock (Germany), and NOx ‘reburning' (both ‘gasover-coal' and ‘coal-over-coal') technology. Other work involved coal characterization, mathematical modeling of pulverized fuel (pf) flames and ‘off-specification' fuels such as coal-water slurries, pulverized wood, wood char, and petroleum coke, the combustion of ‘lean' (i.e. low-BTU) gases of interest to steel producers, and natural gas combustion in glass-melting furnaces. Technical services were conducted for Yukong Co. (Korea), BP and Babcock Energy (UK), KEMA (Netherlands), CHEMREC/KAMYR (Sweden), and L&C Steinmüller (Germany). A ‘step-change' in the way IFRF operates occured in the 1980s, with both participation in large international research programs such as the IEA Coal Combustion Sciences Annexes 1 and 2 (with Australia, Canada, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, the UK, and the USA) and EC Directorate-General XII (‘Research') JOULE and APAS programs, and the settingup and leading of industrial research consortia such as the ‘NG NO x' group (British Gas, Gaz de France, Nederland Gasunie (Netherlands), and Tokyo Gas and Osaka Gas (Japan). In addition, the first ‘Topic-Oriented Technical Meeting' (TOTeM) was held in 1989 at Shell's Amsterdam labs on NOx, N2O, and soot/polyaromatic hydrocarbons (44 TOTeMs have been held to date), and the IFRF's first training course - on flame research techniques - in 1988. The IFRF's research activities of the 1990s can be characterized as being focused on the scaling of combustion systems, numerical simulation, and the development of specialized research facilities. Building on the success of the industrial research consortia model, IFRF established the ‘Scaling 400' study (involving IFRF, British Gas, and US organizations the Gas Research Institute, the University of Michigan, the Burner Engineering Research Laboratory, and John Zink Co.) in scaling lab- and semi-industrial-scale natural gas and pf flames from 30kW to 12MW scale, with a focus on near-field aerodynamics. Work also continued on in-furnace NOx control for coal- and gas-fired boilers through airstaging and reburning approaches - leading to the development of the Internally FuelStaged Burner (IFSB), the optimization of reburn jet penetration and mixing, and a 12MW low-NOx (gas) burner. Other research in the 1990s addressed tangentially-fired boilers, the combustion of pf with oxygen and recirculated flue gases, the combustion/pyrolysis of biomass and waste materials, the co-firing of biomass with pf, multi-fuel burners, excess enthalpy combustion processes (with NEDO and Nippon Furnaces - NFK, of Japan), and mathematical modeling to develop/validate specific software packages. The IPFR drop-tube furnace also allowed considerable work to be undertaken on coal characterization (particularly devolatilization and char burn-out), leading to the creation of the IFRF Coal (now Solid Fuels) Database and supporting work on the fuel blending practices of power utilities. Technical services contracts were undertaken on the direct reduction of iron ore (for Hoogovens) and further burner development tests (for L&C Steinmüller and Lanemark International), and EC-funded projects under the JOULE 1, 2 and 3, and APAS programs continued, addressing topics including the combustion of pf with oxygen and recycled flue gases, the co-firing of pf with shredded straw and sewage sludge, the atmospheric combustion of pf and coal-based blends for power generation, and predicting the performance of advanced pf utility boilers. Two new successful industrial research collaborations were established in the 1990s, namely the ‘CEMFLAME' project examining a wide range of fuels for use in cement kilns (involving 17 cement producers), and the ‘OXYFLAM' consortium with an interest in the oxy-combustion of natural gas (involving AGA and Linde (Germany), Nippon Sanso and Tokyo Gas (Japan), Air Liquide and Gaz de France (France), Hoogovens, and British Gas). Furthermore, an ECfunded training consortium - ‘EUROFLAM' - was established (involving IFRF, Enel (Italy), and Cardiff University (UK)). This increase activity was enabled through a comprehensive programme of investment in IFRF's facilities throughout the decade, including a new ‘No. 1 Furnace' (now with a maximum thermal power rating of 5MWth) with a venturi scrubber (1991), a new IPFR 4.5m 60kWth max. drop-tube furnace (1994), a phase Doppler particle analyser (1996), a progressive upgrading of the IFRF's computational facilities, the installation of various laser diagnostic tools (LDA, LDV, LSV, and CARS), and the manufacture of a range of IFRF-designed, in-flame analytical probes for temperature measurement (i.e. water-cooled suction pyrometer) and flame sampling to determine the in situ chemistry (i.e. gas sampling, ellipsoidal radiometers, and slag deposition probes). In 1998, IFRF underwent an organizational restucturing to form two separate bodies, namely, IFRF Information Exchange (with a member communications focus) and IFRF Research Station B.V. (a limited liability, wholly-owned subsidiary). As new millenium drew close, it was clear to IFRF's management team that the organization's tenure at IJmuiden was drawing to a close. Hoogovens, which has ‘hosted' IFRF since its formation in 1948, had merged with the larger British Steel plc in 1999 to form the Corus Group steel company, and its strategic direction, research interests, and plans for the IJmuiden plant site were all in the process of realignment. The IFRF's Joint Committee therefore set about identifying a suitable new ‘host' organization and location for IFRF. This process culminated in Italian multinational energy company Enel, which already had strong links with IFRF through its membership of the Italy National Committee and its partnership with the EUROFLAM training consortium, offering to host IFRF at its Livorno research facility, near Pisa. The move to Italy took place in 2006, with a replica of the No. 1 Furnace, referred to as ‘FOSPER' (FOrnace SPERimentale) being built at the new location, and the IPFR rig being relocated from IJmuiden. These rigs were complemented by Enel's existing, semi-industrial scale R&D facilities made available to IFRF under the terms of the hosting agreement, including ‘CASPER' (CAldaia SPERimentale - a 6.5MWth max. experimental boiler operating on liquid fuels or natural gas), ‘TAO' (‘Turbina Access Ottico' - a 400kWth max. optical test rig for gas turbines), a 200kWth max. downdraft gasifier, a 500kWth max. test furnace, plus other specialist rigs for atomization/spray characterization, selective catalytic reduction, aerodynamic testing, etc. For the remainder of the 2000s, IFRF's Members Research Program was focused on solid fuel characterization, the validation of combustion modeling for coal and gas, and the ‘quantification of uncertainties' (experimental and models). This work involved a number of the new rigs, associated analytical instruments, and CFD models to provide data on combustion and co-combustion with biomass and waste, firing solid fuels in oxygen or recirculated flue gases atmosphere, and novel combustion technologies. These data strengthened significantly the IFRF's (now) Solid Fuels Database. Other activities undertaken in this decade concerned testing various burners - Austrian Energy's ‘AE&E' AASB burner and Enel's ‘TEA-C' burner designs - in an oxy-fuel combustion regime on the FOSPER furnace, using the 500kWth test furnace to study slagging and fouling propensity during co-firing biomass with pf as part of an EC 7th Framework Programme (FP7) project (‘DEmonstration of large-scale Biomass CO-firing and supply chain integration' - DEBCO, 2009-2012), and developing IFRF's capability to design, manufacture, calibrate, and service in-flame and in-furnace probes for industrial applications. This probes-related activity was targeted at helping to quantify uncertainties in the combustion process, but had a side-result of fostering a specialist service to members (and sometimes non-members, on a contract basis). New probe concepts were developed, example being a suction probe for in-flame Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysers to study minor species, and a quartz-tipped probe for ENEA's'Optical Didnostic for Combustion' (ODC) system to enable it to be used in an oxy-/recirculated-flue --combustion regime. The research themes for the early 2010s followed-on with these activities: Developing an ultra-low-NOx hydrogen-fueled burner for Enel and the Veneto Region of Italy using the TAO rig (20122013), looking at the formation of inorganic aerosols, probe development for oxy-firing and novel combustion processes, CFD validation, and undertaking extensive fuel characterization activities with a focus on varieties of biomass feedstock (including developing/testing fuel characterization methodologies and quantification procedures, characterizing a wide range of solid and liquid fuels, developing fuel-specific sub-models, and maintaining and adding to the IFRF Solid Fuels Database). In addition, IFRF participated in a number of EC-funded FP7 or Research Fund for Coal & Steel (RFCS) projects during this period, including DEBCO (see above), Biofuels Research Infrastructure for Sharing Knowledge (BRISK, 2012-2015), ‘RELiable and efficient COMbustion of oxygen/coal/recycled flue gas mixtures' (RelCOM, 2012-2015), and ‘Online Corossion Diagnostics - high temperature chlorineinduced corrosion in co-combustion' (OnCorD, 2014-2017). This period was also characterized by numerous industrial collaborations and technical service contracts (including projects/contracts with Enel, Andritz Oy, Biopower Tuscany, Endesa, SSV, CIUDEN, ENEA, and Greens Combustion) - work that included some conducting testing campaigns at clients' sites, as well as work on the Livorno rigs. During 2015, it became clear that Enel's strategic direction was changing, with a greater interest in the use of renewable energy sources, rather than fossil fuels, for power generation, and with advanced (‘smart') grid and storage technologies. As a result, IFRF's Joint Committee again began the search for a new host organization and a business plan that offered IFRF a sustainable future. This process entailed soliciting a number of ‘expressions of interest', a short-listing, and two organizations being asked to prepare business plans and present to the Joint Committee at the end of 2015. This culminated in the University of Sheffield, UK (an institution long and deeply connected with IFRF since its foundation in 1948) being selected as the new host. 70 years old and entering a new phase And so, as it approaches the 70th anniversary of its formation next year, IFRF moved to its third location - Sheffield, UK. The University of Sheffield worked with the Livorno team to transfer equipment, archives, practices, and processes, and in January this year, IFRF Ltd - a not-for-profit organization - was established and began its operations. With this fresh start, a new modus operandi has been adopted, with IFRF focusing on ‘networking' functions and providing the established member services and the University's PACT research facilities becoming a ‘preferred research partner', offering IFRF access to a wide variety of pilot-scale R&D facilities and researchers. The University of Sheffield established IFRF Ltd (a non-profit company) in January this year, and commenced activities the same month. However, this move will build upon IFRF's firm foundations. It has a well-established membership structure (i.e. the National Committees), comprising 125 organizations in 22 countries across the world. The IFRF website provides members with online access to a searchable archive of over 5,000 technical/other reports, a library of presentations from IFRF conferences and workshops, an e-newsletter (‘Monday Night Mail'), an online peer-reviewed journal (‘Industrial Combustion'), an online ‘Combustion Handbook' comprising around 320 ‘files' on a variety of topics, a private and secure email system (‘IFRF Members' Exchange') linking IFRF members worldwide, a diary of technical events, career and training opportunities, and two extensive databases (the Solid Fuels Database and the European Facilities Datsbase). IFRF and its various National Committees organize regular TOTeMs, national ‘Flame Days' meetings, and specialist workshops (e.g. recent examples being a FTIR owners/users roundtable and a series of CFD validation workshops). In both its former homes - IJmuiden in the Netherlands and Livorno in Italy - IFRF had its own (or access to) semi-industrial-scale experimental facilities on-site. While having such rigs available as needed for Member Research Programmes or contract work is clearly an advantage, this comes at a considerable cost, particularly in terms of low rig utilisation and high overhead costs. Part of the business plan associated with the move to Sheffield involved IFRF moving to having one or more ‘preferred research partners', with appropriate facilities, who would work with IFRF on experimental activities. Part of the ‘USP' of the University of Sheffield becoming the host for IFRF is that it is a partner in a collaborative activity called PACT. PACT is a specialist not-forprofit national collaboration with facilities for research in advanced fossil-fuel energy, biomass, energy from waste, carbon capture, utilisation and storage (CCUS), and bioenergy CCUS (‘BECCS'). The facilities bring together a range of integrated pilot-scale test rigs and on-line and laboratory analytical facilities for research, technology development, validation and benchmarking. In addition to the University of Sheffield, the collaboration partners are Cranfield University, the Universities of Edinburgh and Nottingham, and Imperial College London. The sponsors of PACT are the UK government (Department of Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy), the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC), and the UK CCS Research Centre (UKCCSRC). The experimental facilities (located in Sheffield, Cranfield and Nottingham) comprise: a 250kW air/oxyfuel pulverised fuel (biomass and/or coal) combustion plant able to operate in conventional air combustion or oxyfuel mode, including real and simulated flue gas recycling with controllable CO2, O2 compositions and trace gas and steam injection capability; a 150kW air/oxyfuel pulverised fuel combustion plant; a 300kW circulating fluidised bed (CFB) combustor/gasifier; a 750kW gas turbine burner with deposition probes; a 300kW grate combustor CHP energy system for biomass and waste; two 330kW (inlet) CHP gas turbines; a 50kW chemical looping facility; a 1tCO2/day post-combustion carbon capture (PCC) plant using 100-250Nm3/h inlet gas and integrated to on-site combustion and synthetic gas facilities; a gas mixing facility for modulation of real flue gases or generation of synthetic flue/industrial process gases such as steel, cement, refineries process gases; a CO2 transport flow rig; state-of-the-art lab facilities for fuel and solvent analysis (including spectrometry and spectroscopy) as well as online analytical facilities, unique ICP-OES for simultaneous analysis of up to 50 metal species in flue/process gas, multi-point FTIR gas analysis, conventional combustion gas analysers, chemical solvent analysers, and fast real-time particle size analyser; a transportable mini-lab for on-site, long-term capture media testing under real operating conditions; a mobile DMS-500 for submicron particle (aerosol) measurements from stack; a modular 800°C, 100bar flow reactor; and milling equipment with powders analysis. These experimental facilities are complemented by leading process and integrated systems modelling/simulation capability, including model development and validation. PACT will provide IFRF with commercially neutral, collaborative and/or contract R&D services, with shared access to the facilities, bridging the gap between lab-scale R&D and industrial pilot-scale testing. PACT is proposing to extend their core facilities near Sheffield to incorporate the existing experimental rigs and capabilities into an integrated smart energy system, with a range of renewable energy sources, energy storage and grid technologies, on a purposebuilt site owned by the University. This proposed future development - ‘PACT-2' - would significantly enhance PACT's capabilities in support of IFRF. IFRF intends to develop other preferred research partners - partners that can offer a complementary range and scale of experimental facilities to those available with PACT, thus enabling a broader range of member/contract research work to be undertaken. The priorities for the new IFRF are: to strengthen the ‘offering' to its existing members; to maintain its pattern of regular meetings (TOTeMs, Member Conferences, Flame Days, and specialist workshops); to grow the membership with a particular focus on Asia (notably China, India, Korea, Japan, Indonesia, the Philippines, etc.) and look to establish an ‘Asia Flame Committee'; to work with PACT on existing collaborative projects, developing new R&D as appropriate, member services, etc.; and to use key events to promote IFRF. The longer term strategy for IFRF includes being a part of the development of PACT (i.e. PACT-2), widen the base of preferred research partners to provide access to a broader range of relevant R&D facilities and researchers, and to extend the scope of IFRF (i.e. a broader definition of ‘combustion'). Conclusions The IFRF is a well-established and prestigious organization with a long and successful trackrecord of R&D into combustion and flames spanning almost 70 years. With its move this year to Sheffield, new ways of working and new opportunities beckon. To realize these, IFRF will develop a broader capability - one with a high relevance to both current and future R&D needs. Happy 70th anniversary for 2018, IFRF - "here's to the next 70 years!"
|Metadata Cataloger||Catrina Wilson|