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IdentifierTitleDescriptionSubject
1 2-37a2-37a - Vascular FeaturesWhen looking at the disc, the central retinal artery and vein should be visible. The central retinal artery is usually slightly narrower than the vein. When the central retinal artery goes though the lamina cribrosa, the artery becomes smaller because of diminution of the muscular layer and loss of ...Vascular Features
2 2-37b2-37b - Vascular FeaturesWhen looking at the disc, the central retinal artery and vein should be visible. The central retinal artery is usually slightly narrower than the vein. When the central retinal artery goes though the lamina cribrosa, the artery becomes smaller because of diminution of the muscular layer and loss of ...Vascular Features
3 2-4a2-4a - Disc AnatomyThe optic disc appearance is determined by: the size of the eye, the size of the scleral canal, how the nerve is inserted into the globe, the appearance of the lamina cribrosa, where myelination stops, and what is left behind in normal development. Even though this is a disc with a very large cup, i...Disc Anatomy
4 2-53a2-53a - Venous PulsationsOn the disc, look for spontaneous venous pulsations. Spontaneous venous pulsations can be seen in the large trunks of veins at the level of the disc margin. They are normally present and seen in 37-90% of normals -- depending on the experience of the examiner and the shape of the disc. The spontaneo...Venous Pulsations
5 2-53b2-53b - Venous PulsationsOn the disc, look for spontaneous venous pulsations. Spontaneous venous pulsations can be seen in the large trunks of veins at the level of the disc margin. They are normally present and seen in 37-90% of normals -- depending on the experience of the examiner and the shape of the disc. The spontaneo...Venous Pulsations
6 2-6a2-6a - Little Red DiscsLittle Red Discs
7 2-6b2-6b - Little Red DiscsLittle Red Discs
8 2-7a2-7a - Disc AnatomyThe optic disc appearance is determined by: the size of the eye, the size of the scleral canal, how the nerve is inserted into the globe, the appearance of the lamina cribrosa, where myelination stops, and what is left behind in normal development. Even though this is a disc with a very large cup, i...Disc Anatomy
9 NOVEL_Moran_3a-203 Step TestDemonstration of patient examination.3 Step Test, Fourth Nerve Palsy; Ocular Motility; Fourth (Trochlear)
10 3-33-3 - Bergmeister PapillaBergmeister Papilla
11 3-31b3-31b - Papilledema StagesGrading Papilledema: Stage 0 GRADING PAPILLEDEMA GRADING PAPILLEDEMA We grade papilledema in order to tell us how severe it is. The most sensible grading scheme has been provided by Lars Frisén. STAGE 0: This woman had documented increased intracranial pressure of 340 mm water. Very little if any ...Papilledema Stages; Raised Intracranial Pressure
12 3-32b3-32b - Papilledema StagesGrading Papilledema: Stage 1 Stage 1 = C shaped blurring of the nasal, superior and inferior borders. Usually the temporal margin is normal. Also notice the chorio-retinal folds (arrows) that eminate toward the macula (m)Papilledema Stages; Raised Intracranial Pressure
13 3-33b3-33b - Papilledema StagesGrading Papilledema: Stage 2 = Elevation of the disc margin 360 degrees. Since the blood vessels at the disc margin are not swollen or obscured, this disc could be mistaken for pseudo-papilledema.Papilledema Stages; Raised Intracranial Pressure
14 3-34c3-34c Papilledema StagesGrading Papilledema: Stage 3 Stage 3 = Elevation of the entire disc with partial obscuration of the retinal vessels at the disc margin. Here the vessels are partly obscured and make the development into stage 3 easier to call.Papilledema Stages; Raised Intracranial Pressure
15 3-35a3-35a - Papilledema StagesGrading Papilledema: Stage 4 Stage 4 = Complete obliteration of the cup and complete obscuration of at least some vessels on the surface of the disc. There may be small dilated capillaries on the disc that resemble telangiectasia. It is not the NFL infarcts or hemorrhages but the obscuration of the ...Papilledema Stages; Raised Intracranial Pressure
16 3-36a3-36a - Papilledema StagesGrading Papilledema: Stage 5 Stage 5 = Dome-shaped appearance with all vessels being obscured. (Sometimes called "champagne cork" swelling--because of its dome shape.)Papilledema Stages; Raised Intracranial Pressure
17 3-43-4 - Tilted DiscTilted discs are normal variants caused by oblique insertion of the optic nerve to the globe. They can be and frequently are mistaken for papilledema. In this case the superior edge of the disc is tilted and appears elevated. This disc exhibits a nasal inferior tilt.Tilted Disc
18 3-56a3-56a - SarcoidSarcoid
19 3-59a3-59a - GliomaThis 45-year-old man presented with vision loss in his right eye; his examination showed severe disc swelling in this eye and vision loss on visual field testing (3-59a). MRI with fat saturation and enhancement and MRI with T2 signals also confirm an enlarged optic nerve. (3-59c) Excisional biopsy o...Glioma
20 3-59c3-59c - GliomaThis 45-year-old man presented with vision loss in his right eye; his examination showed severe disc swelling in this eye and vision loss on visual field testing (3-59a). MRI with fat saturation and enhancement and MRI with T2 signals also confirm an enlarged optic nerve. (3-59c) Excisional biopsy o...Glioma
21 3-5b3-5b - Myelinated Nerve FibersMyelinated nerve fibers are frequently confused with papilledema. The feathery edge of the myelinated fibers that conceal the disc and vessel should provide the clue. These myelinated nerve fibers make the disc look blurred.Myelinated Nerve Fibers
22 3-60a3-60a - MeningiomaThis 35 year old woman presented with slowly progressive loss of central acuity to 20/30. 3-60a: Her visual field shows progressive restriction over time. 3-60b: Her disc was chronically swollen, with refractile bodies on the disc surface. 3-60d: The CT axial scan showed an enlarged calcified optic...Meningioma
23 3-60b3-60b - MeningiomaThis 35 year old woman presented with slowly progressive loss of central acuity to 20/30. 3-60a: Her visual field shows progressive restriction over time. 3-60b: Her disc was chronically swollen, with refractile bodies on the disc surface. 3-60d: The CT axial scan showed an enlarged calcified optic...Meningioma
24 3-60d3-60d - MeningiomaThis 35 year old woman presented with slowly progressive loss of central acuity to 20/30. 3-60a: Her visual field shows progressive restriction over time. 3-60b: Her disc was chronically swollen, with refractile bodies on the disc surface. 3-60d: The CT axial scan showed an enlarged calcified optic...Meningioma
25 3-64a3-64a - Shunt Vessels (CRVO)This man with a chronic CRVO and retino-choroidal collaterals developed AION and his collaterals disappeared. CRVO with retinochoroidal collaterals is almost always associated with multiple peripheral dot and blot hemorrhages as well as nerve fiber layer infarcts of various ages. Notice the retino-c...Shunt Vessels (CRVO)
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